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Table 2 Summary of included studies

From: Fenoldopam to prevent acute kidney injury after major surgery—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Time of study Type of surgery Number of patients (F/P) Age (F/P) Dose and duration of fenoldopam Inclusion of CKD patients Definition of AKI Reported outcomes Reported side effects
O’Hara et al. [19] Nov 2002 to April 2010 Partial nephrectomy in patients with single kidney 77 (43/34) 59/59 (mean) 0.1 μg/kg/min for 24 h Not reported RIFLE criteria or change in GFR AKI RRT data provided separately by authors None reported
Ranucci et al. [17] Sept 2008 to March 2009 Elective cardiac surgery with expected CPB time ≥90 mins 80 (40/40) 65/64 (mean) 0.1 μg/kg/min from pre-operative to 12 h post-opertive Yes (including 2 patients on chronic dialysis) Peak Cr >2 mg/dL and 100 % rise from baseline for >24 h AKI 30-day mortality Stroke, mechanical ventilation, sternal wound infection, re-exploration
Barr et al. [15] May 2002 to Jan 2006 Elective or emergency cardiac surgery in patients with pre-operative CrCl ≤40 ml/min 38 (19/19) 77.2/72.4 (mean) 0.1 μg/kg/min for 48 h Yes (CKD was an inclusion criterion) Difference in CrCl as per Cockcroft-Gault formula between pre-operative and post-operative day 3 CrCl RRT Hospital mortality Use of vasopressors and inotropes
Cogliati et al. [16] Not reported High-risk cardiac surgery 193 (95/98) 70.3/69.6 (mean) 0.1 μg/kg/min started before surgical incision until 24 h post-operative Yes Serum Cr rise to >2 mg/dl with a rise of ≥0.7 mg/dl from pre-operative to post-operative AKI RRT None reported
Biancofiore et al. [18] Jan 2001 to July 2003 Liver transplant surgery 92 (46/46) 45/51 (median) 0.1 μg/kg/min from induction until 96 h post-operative Yes (provided pre-operative Cr ≤1.5 mg/dL) Serum Cr rise to >1.5 mg/dl or doubling of Cr or need for RRT AKI RRT Hospital mortality None reported
Halpenny et al. [5] Not reported Elective aortic surgery with infra-renal cross-clamping 27 (14/13) 70/69 (mean) 0.1 μg/kg/min from surgical incision until release of aortic cross-clamp No Not specifically defined AKI Blood loss, MAP and heart rate
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, CKD chronic kidney disease, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, Cr creatinine, CrCl creatinine clearance, F Fenoldopam, GFR glomerular filtration rate, MAP mean arterial blood pressure, P placebo, RIFLE Risk–Injury–Failure–Loss–End-stage renal disease, RRT renal replacement therapy