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Table 2 Reported outcomes in the included randomized controlled trials

From: Timing of tracheotomy in ICU patients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

  Duration of mechanical ventilation, early versus late groups (days) Number of ventilator-free days in 28 days, early versus late groups Duration of ICU stay, early versus late groups (days) Number of ICU-free days in 28 days, early versus late groups Duration of sedation, early versus late groups (days) Number of sedation-free days in 28 days, early versus late groups Acquired pneumonia, early versus late groups Mortality (≤2 months), early versus late groups Mortality (>2 months), early versus late groups Other outcomes, early versus late groups,
Saffle et al. (2002) [38] 35.5 (4.5) vs. 31.4 (5.2) (p, NA) NA NA NA NA NA 21 (100 %) vs. 22 (96 %) (p = 0.16) 17 (81 %) vs. 17 (74 %) (p = 0.58) NA Successfully extubated, 1 (5 %) vs. 6 (26 %) (p <0.01)
Rumbak et al. (2004) [16] 7.6 (4.0) vs. 17.4 (5.3) (p <0.01) NA 4.8 (1.4) vs. 16.2 (3.8) (p <0.01) NA 3.2 (0.4) vs. 14.1 (2.9) (p <0.01) NA 3 (5 %) vs. 15 (25 %) (p <0.05) 19 (32 %) vs, 37 (62 %) (p <0.05) (at 30 d) NA Damage to the larynx and lips, rated 0–1 vs. 2–3
Barquist et al. (2006) [39] NA 8.57 (7.9) vs. 8.83 (9) (in 30 d) (p = 0.9) NA 5.0 (6.0) vs. 5.3 (6.5) (in 30 d) (p = 0.8) NA NA 28 (97 %) vs. 28 (90 %) (p = 0.6) 2 (6.9 %) vs. 5 (16 %) (p = 0.4) NA  
Blot et al. (2008) [40] 14 (2–28) vs. 16 (3–28) (p = 0.62) NA NA NA NA 18 (0–27) vs. 15 (0–27) 30 (49 %) vs. 31 (50 %) (p = 0.94) 12 (20 %) vs. 15 (24 %) (at 28 d); 16 (27 %) vs. 15 (24 %) (at 60 d) NA Laryngeal symptoms, 1 (2 %) vs. 7 (11 %) (p = 0.01)
Terragni et al. (2010) [17] NA 11 (0–21) vs. 6 (0–17) (p = 0.02) NA 0 (0–13) vs. 0 (0-8) (p = 0.02) NA NA 30 (14 %) vs. 44 (21 %) (p = 0.07) 55 (26 %) vs. 66 (31 %) (p = 0.25) (at 28 d) 72/144 (50 %) vs. 75/138 (57 %)(p = 0.25) (in 1 year) Successful weaning, 161 (77 %) vs. 142 (68) (p = 0.02)
Trouillet et al. (2011) [18] 17.9 (14.9) vs. 19.3 (16.9) (p = 0.55) 10.0 (8.8) vs. 9.2 (10.2) (p = 0.52) 23.9 (21.3) vs. 25.5 (22.2) (p = 0.85) NA 6.4 (5.9) vs. 9.6 (7.3) (p <0.01) 19.0 (9.1) vs. 15.5 (9.3) (p <0.01) 50 (46 %) vs. 47 (44 %) (p = 0.77) 17 (16 %) vs. 23 (21 %) (p = 0.30) (at 30 d) 12/74 (16 %) vs. 17/74 (23 %) (p = 0.49) (in 2.4 years in mean) ADL, anxiety, depression, or PTSD, similar
Zheng et al. (2012) [41] NA 9.6 (5.6) vs. 7.4 (6.2) (p = 0.05) NA 8.0 (5.0–12.0) vs. 3.0 (0–12.0) (p <0.01) NA 20.8 (2.4) vs. 17.1 (2.3) (p = 0.05) 17 (29 %) vs. 30 (49 %) (p = 0.03) 8 (14 %) vs. 6 (10 %) (p = 0.55) (at 28 d) NA  
Koch et al. (2012) [42] 15.3 (9.1–19.8) vs. 21.1 (13.5–27.9) (p ≤0.01) NA 21.5 (15.0–30.0) vs. 30.6 (22.0–37.0) (p ≤0.05) NA NA NA 19 (38 %) vs. 32 (64 %) 9 (18 %) vs. 7 (14 %) (p = 0.79) (in ICU) 10 (20 %) vs. 11(22 %) (p = 0.81) (in hospital)  
Young et al. (2013) [19] 13.6 (12.0) vs. 15.2 (14.4) (p = 0.06) NA 13.0 (8.2–19.1) vs. 13.1 (7.4–23.6) (p = 0.74) in survivors; 9.3 (4.2–16.0) vs. 10.4 (6.0–19.7) (p = 0.16) in non-survivors NA 5 (3–9) vs. 8 (4–12) (p <0.01) in survivors; 5 (3–9) vs. 6 (4–10) (p = 0.11) in non-survivors NA NA 139 (31 %) vs. 141 (32 %) (p = 0.89) (at 30 d) 168 (40 %) vs. 180 (41 %) (p = 0.63) (in hospital); 207 (46 %) vs. 217 (49 %) (p = 0.38) (1 year) Antibiotic use, 5 (1–8) vs. 5 (1–10) (p = 0.95) (in 30 d)
Bösel et al. (2013) [43] 15 (10–17) vs. 12 (8–16) (p = 0.23) NA 17 (13–22) vs. 18 (16–28) (p = 0.38) NA NA NA NA 3 (10 %) vs. 14 (47 %) (p <0.01) (in ICU) 8 (27 %) vs. 18 (0.6 %) (p = 0.02) (in 6 months) Sedation use (42 %) vs. (62 %) (p = 0.02).
Mohamed et al. (2014) [44] 20.6 (13.0) vs. 32.2 (10.5) (p <0.01) NA 21.1 (13.5) vs. 40.2 (12.7) (p <0.01) NA NA NA 4 (20 %) vs. 8 (40 %) NA 8 (40 %) vs. 8 (40 %) (in hospital)  
Diaz-Prieto et al. (2014) [25] NA 11 (0–22) vs. 9 (0–22) (p = 0.05) 22 (6–101) 22.5 (6–174) (p = 0.31) NA 11 (2–92) vs. 14 (0–79) (p = 0.02) NA 33 (13 %) vs. 23 (9 %) (p = 0.16) 42 (17 %) vs. 47 (19 %) (p = 0.54) (at 28 d) 63 (26 %) vs. 73 (30 %) (p = 0.30) (at 90 d); 67 (27 %) vs. 78 (32 %) (p = 0.26) (in hospital) Excluded by attending physician, 284 (58 %)
  1. The values are presented as number (%), mean with (SD) or median with (IQR). The values indicate early tracheostomy versus late tracheostomy
  2. ADL activities of daily living, d days, NA not available, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder, RCT randomized controlled trial