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Table 1 Summary of the included randomized controlled trials of early versus late tracheotomy

From: Timing of tracheotomy in ICU patients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Study       Patients   
Definition of early versus late tracheotomya(days) Type of ICU; number of ICUs Number of patients, early versus late groups Inclusion criteria Excluded Major disease category APACHE II/SAPS II Tracheotomy rate (number (%)) in early versus late groups Percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy (number (%)) in early versus late groups
Saffle et al. (2002) [38] 2-4 vs. 14–16 Burn; 1 21 vs. 23 High predicted probability of prolonged MV   Burn (100 %) NA 21 (100 %) vs. 16 (70 %) NA
Rumbak et al. (2004) [16] ≤2 vs. >14 Medical; 2 60 vs. 60 exp. >14 d MV; APACHE II >25   Respiratory failure (100 %), severe sepsis (68 %) 26.9 60 (100 %) vs. 50 (83 %) All in both groups
Barquist et al. (2006) [39] <8 vs. >28 Trauma; 1 29 vs. 31 GCS >4 with no head injury; GCS >9 with head injury   Trauma (100 %) 12.6 27 (93 %) vs. 11 (35 %) 0/27 (0 %) vs. 0/11 (0 %)
Blot et al. (2008) [40] ≤4 vs. >14 Medical and surgical; 25 61 vs. 62 exp. >7 d MV Irreversible neurological disease Respiratory failure (33 %), neurology (23 %), trauma (19 %) NA/50 60 (98 %) vs. 16 (26 %) 19/60 (32 %) vs. 7/16 (44 %)
Terragni et al. (2010) [17] 6-8 vs. 13–15 NA; 12 209 vs. 210 SAPS II = 35–65; SOFA ≥5; worsening respiratory conditions; unchanged/worse SOFA sore Pneumonia (CPIS ≥6); COPD Respiratory failure (46 %), neurology (24 %), cardiovascular disease (23 %) NA/50.4 145 (69 %) vs. 119 (57 %) 141/145 (97 %) vs. 113/119 (95 %)
Trouillet et al. (2011) [18] <5-7 vs. >19 Surgical; 1 109 vs. 107 exp. >7 d MV Irreversible neurologic disorder Post-cardiac surgery (100 %) NA/46.5 109 (100 %) vs. 29 (27 %) All in both groups
Zheng et al. (2012) [41] 3 vs. 15 Surgical; 1 58 vs. 61 PaO2/FiO2 <200; APACHE II >15;SOFA >5; CPIS >6; exp. >14 d MV Pulmonary infection (CPIS >6) NA 20.0 58 (100 %) vs. 51 (84 %) All in both groups
Koch et al. (2012) [42] ≤4 vs. ≥6 Surgical; 1 50 vs. 50 exp. >21 d MV Pneumonia Neurosurgical (28 %), trauma (25 %) 22 All in both groups All in both groups
Young et al. (2013) [19] ≤4 vs. >10 General;70 and surgical; 2 451 vs. 448 exp. >7 d MV Respiratory failure due to chronic neurological disease Pulmonary (60 %), gastrointestinal (19 %) 19.8 418 (93 %) vs. 204 (46 %) 378/418 (90 %) vs. 176/204 (86 %)
Bösel et al. (2013) [43] ≤3 vs. 7–14 Neuro; 1 30 vs. 30 ICH; SAH; or AIS; exp. >14 d MV Severe chronic cardiopulmonary disease; extensive brainstem lesions Non-traumatic neurology (100 %) 17 30 (100 %) vs. 18 (60 %) 27/30 (90 %) vs. 16/18 (89 %)
Mohamed et al. (2014) [44] ≤10 vs. >10 NA; 2 20 vs. 20 APACHE ≥15 Pneumonia TBI (43 %), CVA (25 %) 24 All in both groups All in both groups
Diaz-Prieto et al. (2014) [25] <8 vs. >14 NA; 4 245 vs. 244 1, exp. >7 d MV; 2, attending physician’s acceptance at 3–5 d   Respiratory insufficiency (60 %), coma (22 %) 20 167 (68 %) vs. 135 (55 %) All in both groups
  1. aValues are shown as days from the initiation of mechanical ventilation, except one that used days from ICU admission [19]. AIS acute ischemic stroke, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CPIS clinical pulmonary infection score, CVA cerebrovascular accident, d days, exp. expected, GCS Glasgow coma scale, ICH intracerebral hemorrhage, MV mechanical ventilation, NA not available, PaO 2 /FiO 2 partial pressure arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen, RCT randomized controlled trial, SAH subarachnoid hemorrhage, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment