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Table 2 Demographics and baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Diabetes-specific enteral nutrition formula in hyperglycemic, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a prospective, open-label, blind-randomized, multicenter study

VARIABLE GROUP A GROUP B GROUP C
(n = 52) (n = 53) (n = 52)
Age (years) 57 (43–70) 60 (45–71) 58 (46–68)
Male (N and %) 37 (71.1 %) 43 (81.1 %) 39 (75 %)
BMI (kg/m2) 26 (24–29) 26 (24–28) 26 (24–27)
APACHE II 17 (14–23) 19 (15–22) 19 (16–23)
SOFA score 8 (6–14) 7 (5–12) 7 (4–12)
Calorie requirements (kcal/day) 1690.4 (384.9) 1707.1 (275.4) 1728.2 (309.2)
Start of EN (hours) 23.4(18.1-27.2) 25.1 (19.6-26.2) 26.7 (21.3-28)
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (N and %) 11 (21.1 %) 7 (13.2 %) 12 (23 %)
HbA1c (%) 6.34 (1.38) 5.76 (0.95) 6.07 (1.39)
Capillary glucose level (mg/dL)a 148.8 (38.8) 149.9 (38.9) 151.5 (39.23)
Plasma glucose level (mg/dL)a 152.1 (54.6) 147.01 (55.93) 152.1 (57.12)
Insulinemia (μU/mL)a 21.59 (36.06) 17.39 (23.77) 19.15 (20.5)
C-peptide (ng/mL)a 4.61 (3.24) 4.49 (2.92) 4.27 (3.67)
HOMA2 IR 2.94 (4.19) 2.48 (2.76) 3.38 (2.37)
HOMA2 %B (β-cell) 102.6 (57.81) 110.5 (74.34) 96.55 (85.09)
HOMA2 %S 79.12 (75.2) 69.6 (48.7) 68.09 (66.9)
Infection (any source) (N and %) 13 (25 %) 15 (28.3 %) 8 (15.3 %)
Diagnostic group (N and %)    
Medical 32 (61.53 %) 36 (67.93 %) 30 (57.69 %)
Trauma 13 (25 %) 9 (16.98 %) 15 (28.85 %)
Surgery 7 (13.47 %) 8 (15.09 %) 7 (13.46 %)
  1. Values are provided as mean (SD), median (Q1-Q3) and percentages (%)
  2. N number, BMI body mass index, APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, EN enteral nutrition, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HOMA2 Homeostasis Model Assessment, IR insulin resistance, %S insulin sensitivity, %B beta cell functionaMeasured after fasting and without insulin infusion for at least 8 hours