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Table 2 Subgroup analyses for outcomes

From: Risks and benefits of stress ulcer prophylaxis in adult neurocritical care patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Comparison UGI bleeding Mortality Nosocomial pneumonia
Studies (n) Patients (n) RR (95 % CI) P valuea I 2 valueb Studies (n) Patients (n) RR (95 % CI) P valuea I 2 valueb Studies (n) Patients (n) RR (95 % CI) P valuea I 2 valueb
Risk of bias     0.92 0 %     0.32 0 %     0.82 0 %
 Higher (high) 5 527 0.30 (0.16–0.56)    4 347 0.68 (0.48–0.95)    2 257 0.98 (0.29–3.31)   
 Lower (low/unclear) 3 302 0.32 (0.15–0.66)    1 34 3.35 (0.15–76.93)    2 264 1.16 (0.51–2.63)   
Intervention     0.42 0 %     0.68 0 %     0.46 0 %
 PPIs 2 219 0.20 (0.06–0.68)    1 111 0.78 (0.46–1.32)    1 111 1.60 (0.73–3.51)   
 H2RAs 8 699 0.35 (0.22–0.53)    5 323 0.68 (0.47–0.98)    4 463 1.12 (0.66–1.91)   
Control     NA NA     0.57 0 %     NA NA
 Placebo 7 789 0.31 (0.20–0.47)    4 341 0.68 (0.47–0.97)    4 521 NA   
 No prophylaxis 1 40 Not estimable    1 40 0.92 (0.33–2.53)    0 0 NA   
Enteral nutrition     0.86 0 %     0.31 2.9 %     0.96 0 %
 Yes 4 423 0.29 (0.16–0.53)    2 142 0.55 (0.31–1.00)    2 193 1.03 (0.26–4.01)   
 No 4 406 0.32 (0.14–0.74)    3 239 0.80 (0.53–1.21)    2 328 1.07 (0.53–2.15)   
Diagnosis     0.52 0 %     0.36 0 %     0.71 0 %
 TBI 4 291 0.22 (0.11–0.43)    3 124 0.88 (0.49–1.57)    1 163 0.75 (0.38–1.51)   
 ICH 3 437 0.31 (0.14–0.72)    2 257 0.63 (0.41–0.95)    2 257 0.98 (0.29–3.31)   
Study location     0.31 1.6 %     0.36 0 %     0.17 46.0 %
 Asia 4 538 0.35 (0.20–0.62)    2 257 0.63 (0.41–0.95)    3 358 1.40 (0.80–2.47)   
 Non-Asian 4 291 0.22 (0.11–0.43)    3 124 0.88 (0.49–1.57)    1 163 0.75 (0.38–1.51)   
  1. CI confidence interval; H2RA histamine 2 receptor antagonist, ICH intracerebral hemorrhage, NA not applicable, PPI proton pump inhibitor, RR risk ratios, TBI traumatic brain injury, UGI upper gastrointestinal
  2. a P values for interaction between groups
  3. b I 2 values for heterogeneity between groups