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Table 2 Association of biomarkers with primary and secondary outcomes

From: Biomarkers from distinct biological pathways improve early risk stratification in medical emergency patients: the multinational, prospective, observational TRIAGE study

  ProADM (nmol/L) Copeptin (pmol/L) Procalcitonin (ug/L)
30-day mortality    
 Survivors, median (IQR) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.2) 10 (4 to 35) 0.08 (0.05 to 0.13)
 Nonsurvivors, median (IQR) 1.8 (1.1 to 3.9) 62 (22 to 154) 0.17 (0.09 to 0.50)
Regression analysis, OR (95 % CI)
 Unadjusted model 32.3 (23.1, 45.2) 4.3 (3.6, 5.1) 2.7 (2.4, 3.2)
 Multivariate model 1 20.4 (14.1, 29.4) 3.4 (2.8, 4) 2.5 (2.1, 2.9)
 Multivariate model 2 22.4 (14.4, 34.9) 3.5 (2.8, 4.3) 2.5 (2.1, 3)
 Multivariate model 3 21.4 (13.5, 34) 3.2 (2.6, 4) 2.4 (2, 2.9)
Discrimination statistics
 AUC (95 % CI) 0.83 (0.81, 0.85) 0.78 (0.75, 0.80) 0.75 (0.72, 0.77)
Admission to ICU    
 No admission to ICU, median (IQR) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.2) 10 (5 to 35) 0.08 (0.06 to 0.13)
 Admission to ICU, median (IQR) 1.2 (0.7 to 2.3) 41 (10 to 138) 0.10 (0.07 to 0.26)
Regression analysis, OR (95 % CI)
 Unadjusted model 7.7 (5.8, 10.3) 3 (2.6, 3.4) 1.9 (1.6, 2.1)
 Multivariate model 1 8 (5.8, 11) 2.9 (2.5, 3.4) 1.7 (1.5, 2)
 Multivariate model 2 10 (6.9, 14.5) 3 (2.6, 3.6) 2.1 (1.8, 2.5)
 Multivariate model 3 7.7 (5.2, 11.5) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 1.9 (1.6, 2.3)
Discrimination statistics
 AUC (95 % CI) 0.67 (0.65, 0.70) 0.69 (0.67, 0.72) 0.62 (0.59, 0.64)
High initial triage priority    
 Low triage priority, median (IQR) 0.7 (0.5 to 1.0) 8 (4 to 21) 0.07 (0.06 to 0.11)
 High triage priority, median (IQR) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.6) 18 (6 to 68) 0.08 (0.06 to 0.16)
Regression analysis, OR (95 % CI)
 Unadjusted model 10 (8.2, 12.2) 2.6 (2.4, 2.8) 1.9 (1.7, 2.1)
 Multivariate model 1 8.6 (6.8, 10.8) 2.2 (2, 2.4) 1.6 (1.5, 1.8)
 Multivariate model 2 11.6 (8.8, 15.2) 2.3 (2.1, 2.6) 1.7 (1.5, 1.9)
 Multivariate model 3 10.8 (8.2, 14.3) 2.2 (2, 2.5) 1.6 (1.4, 1.8)
Discrimination statistics
 AUC (95 % CI) 0.67 (0.66, 0.68) 0.66 (0.65, 0.67) 0.58 (0.56, 0.59)
  1. Biomarker data were log transformed before entering into the statistical models with a base of ten. The ORs therefore correspond to a tenfold increase in biomarker levels. Model 1 (age, gender), model 2 (age, gender, comorbidities, main symptom, main diagnosis), model 3 (age, gender, comorbidities, main symptom, main diagnosis, vital signs)
  2. ProADM pro-adrenomedullin, IQR interquartile range, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, AUC area under the curve