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Table 1 Patient characteristics overall and according to study site

From: Biomarkers from distinct biological pathways improve early risk stratification in medical emergency patients: the multinational, prospective, observational TRIAGE study

  All patients Swiss US French
n = 7132 4579 1000 1553
Sociodemographics
 Age, median (IQR) 62 (46, 76) 63 (47, 76) 69 (55, 81) 55 (38, 69)
 Female gender, n (%) 3301 (46.7 %) 2046 (44.7 %) 500 (50.0 %) 755 (50.7 %)
Clinical presentation at ED admission, median (IQR)
 Blood pressure diastolic (mmHg) 80 (70, 90) 81 (71, 91) 77.5 (67, 89) 79 (70, 90)
 Blood pressure systolic (mmHg) 137 (121, 154) 138 (122, 155) 141 (121, 163) 133 (119, 149)
 Confusion, n (%) 522 (7.3 %) 453 (9.9 %) 40 (4.0 %) 29 (1.9 %)
 Pulse (bpm) 83 (71, 97) 82 (70, 95) 82 (71, 98) 86 (74, 99)
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 18 (18, 20) 32 (24, 36) 18 (18, 20) 21 (18, 25)
 SpO2 (%) 96.8 (94, 98) 96 (94, 97) 97 (95, 99) 98 (96, 99)
 Temperature (°C), 36.8 (36.4, 37.2) 36.9 (36.6, 37.4) 36.5 (36.1, 36.8) 36.7 (36.4, 37)
Main symptom at ED admission, n (%)
 Diarrhea, vomitus, dysuria 495 (6.9 %) 288 (6.3 %) 95 (9.5 %) 112 (7.2 %)
 Fever 343 (4.8 %) 254 (5.5 %) 15 (1.5 %) 74 (4.8 %)
 Gastrointestinal bleeding 199 (2.8 %) 140 (3.1 %) 28 (2.8 %) 31 (2.0 %)
 Neurological symptoms 1379 (19.3 %) 1138 (24.9 %) 78 (7.8 %) 163 (10.5 %)
 Nonthoracic pain 1217 (17.1 %) 682 (14.9 %) 103 (10.3 %) 432 (27.8 %)
 Respiratory symptoms 948 (13.3 %) 526 (11.5 %) 220 (22.0 %) 202 (13.0 %)
 Thoracic pain 1038 (14.6 %) 690 (15.1 %) 153 (15.3 %) 195 (12.6 %)
 Worsening of general condition 837 (11.7 %) 258 (5.6 %) 308 (30.8 %) 271 (17.5 %)
 Other symptom 676 (9.5 %) 603 (13.2 %) 0 (0.0 %) 73 (4.7 %)
Main diagnosis, n (%)
 Cancer 297 (4.2 %) 234 (5.1 %) 29 (2.9 %) 34 (2.2 %)
 Cardiovascular 1732 (24.3 %) 1003 (21.9 %) 413 (41.3 %) 316 (20.3 %)
 Gastrointestinal 896 (12.6 %) 503 (11.0 %) 92 (9.2 %) 301 (19.4 %)
 Infection 896 (12.6 %) 657 (14.3 %) 49 (4.9 %) 190 (12.2 %)
 Metabolic 238 (3.3 %) 62 (1.4 %) 56 (5.6 %) 120 (7.7 %)
 Neurological 1569 (22.0 %) 1150 (25.1 %) 160 (16.0 %) 259 (16.7 %)
 Pulmonary 471 (6.6 %) 169 (3.7 %) 158 (15.8 %) 144 (9.3 %)
 Other 1033 (14.5 %) 801 (17.5 %) 43 (4.3 %) 189 (12.2 %)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Cancer 968 (13.6 %) 678 (14.8 %) 79 (7.9 %) 211 (13.6 %)
 Chronic renal failure 872 (12.2 %) 694 (15.2 %) 78 (7.8 %) 100 (6.4 %)
 Congestive heart failure 487 (6.8 %) 286 (6.2 %) 118 (11.8 %) 83 (5.3 %)
 COPD 359 (5.0 %) 229 (5.0 %) 51 (5.1 %) 79 (5.1 %)
 Coronary heart disease 838 (11.7 %) 557 (12.2 %) 107 (10.7 %) 174 (11.2 %)
 Dementia 223 (3.1 %) 147 (3.2 %) 67 (6.7 %) 9 (0.6 %)
 Diabetes 1088 (15.3 %) 681 (14.9 %) 224 (22.4 %) 183 (11.8 %)
 History of stroke 566 (7.9 %) 456 (10.0 %) 5 (0.5 %) 105 (6.8 %)
 Hypertension 2795 (39.2 %) 1920 (41.9 %) 479 (47.9 %) 396 (25.5 %)
 Substance abuse 460 (6.4 %) 303 (6.6 %) 52 (5.2 %) 105 (6.8 %)
Initial blood biomarkers, median (IQR)
 Copeptin, (pmol/L) 10.74 (4.54, 38.90) 11.60 (4.70, 43.80) 15.02 (5.70, 59.42) 7.63 (3.95, 19.21)
 Creatinine (micromol/L) 81.0 (67.0, 103.0) 85.0 (70.0, 106.0) 79.6 (70.7, 106.1) 67.0 (55.0, 84.0)
 Glucose (mmol/L) 6.1 (5.3, 7.5) 6.2 (5.4, 7.5) 6.3 (5.3, 8.2) 5.8 (5.2, 6.9)
 Hemoglobin (G/L) 13.6 (12.1, 14.8) 13.7 (12.2, 14.9) 12.9 (11.4, 14.4) 13.7 (12.4, 14.8)
 PCT (ug/L) 0.08 (0.06, 0.13) 0.08 (0.06, 0.13) 0.09 (0.06, 0.15) 0.08 (0.06, 0.13)
 ProADM (nmol/L) 0.79 (0.57, 1.24) 0.81 (0.60, 1.27) 0.98 (0.70, 1.62) 0.59 (0.45, 0.88)
 Sodium (mmol/L) 139 (137, 140) 139 (137, 141) 138 (136, 140) 138 (137, 140)
 WBC (G/L) 8.4 (6.6, 10.9) 8.5 (6.7, 11.0) 8.3 (6.4, 11) 8.1 (6.3, 10.8)
Initial triage score, n (%)
 No emergency 774 (11.1 %) 638 (14.2 %) 0 (0.0 %) 136 (9.1 %)
 Within 90 minutes 1746 (25.1 %) 1030 (23.0 %) 61 (6.1 %) 655 (43.9 %)
 Within 30 minutes 3030 (43.5 %) 1783 (39.8 %) 693 (69.3 %) 554 (37.2 %)
 Within 10 minutes 1256 (18.0 %) 910 (20.3 %) 219 (21.9 %) 127 (8.5 %)
 Immediate treatment needed 163 (2.3 %) 117 (2.6 %) 27 (2.7 %) 19 (1.3 %)
Patient outcomes, n (%)
Site of care, n (%)
 Outpatient treatment 1555 (27.2 %) 637 (19.8 %) 0 (0.0 %) 918 (61.6 %)
 Length of stay, mean (SD) 6.0 (6.1) 5.7 (5.1) 5.0 (5.3) 9.5 (9.5)
Location after hospital/ED discharge, n (%)
 Home 5983 (83.9 %) 3796 (82.9 %) 723 (72.3 %) 1464 (94.3 %)
 Other institution 504 (7.1 %) 435 (9.5 %) 61 (6.1 %) 8 (0.5 %)
 Rehabilitation 320 (4.5 %) 207 (4.5 %) 50 (5.0 %) 63 (4.1 %)
 Other 325 (4.6 %) 141 (3.1 %) 166 (16.6 %) 18 (1.2 %)
Outcomes within 30 days, n (%)
 Intensive care unit admission 453 (6.4 %) 181 (4.0 %) 153 (15.3 %) 119 (7.7 %)
 Inhospital mortality 188 (2.6 %) 136 (3.0 %) 21 (2.1 %) 31 (2.0 %)
 30-day mortality 331 (4.6 %) 252 (5.5 %) 45 (4.5 %) 34 (2.2 %)
 Unplanned hospital readmission 590 (8.3 %) 311 (6.8 %) 184 (18.4 %) 95 (6.1 %)
  1. IQR interquartile range, ED emergency department, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PCT procalcitonin, ProADM pro-adrenomedullin, WBC white blood cell count, SD standard deviation