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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with different types of ARDS at the time of ARDS diagnosis

From: Comparison of community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and intensive care unit-acquired acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective observational cohort study

Characteristics Total ARDS Community-acquired ARDS Hospital-acquired ARDS ICU-acquired ARDS p
(n = 296) (n = 70) (n = 83) (n = 143)
Age (years) 63.0 ± 16.5 62.8 ± 19.9 62.3 ± 16.0 63.5 ± 15.2 0.855
Gender (male/female) 198/98 47/23 50/33 101/42 0.278
BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 4.2 23.9 ± 3.9 23.6 ± 3.7 23.5 ± 4.6 0.811
PBW 57 ± 10 56.8 ± 8.0 56.2 ± 10.5 57.6 ± 10.6 0.580
CCI 3.4 ± 2.4 2.83 ± 2.2 3.63 ± 2.8 3.56 ± 2.2 0.068
APACHE II score 25.1 ± 6.9 26.1 ± 6.6 24.5 ± 6.9 25.0 ± 7.2 0.339
SOFA score 11.5 ± 3.8 10.7 ± 3.5 11.7 ± 4.0 11.8 ± 3.9 0.107
MOD score 9.8 ± 3.4 9.3 ± 2.9 9.9 ± 3.6 10.0 ± 3.6 0.300
Lung injury score 2.9 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 0.4 2.9 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 0.5 0.249
Tidal volume (ml/PBW) 8.4 ± 2.0 8.1 ± 1.7 8.7 ± 1.9 8.3 ± 2.1 0.241
PEEP (cm H2O) 10.2 ± 2.2 10.1 ± 2.0 9.8 ± 1.9 10.5 ± 2.5 0.078
Peak Paw (cm H2O) 29.8 ± 5.9 30.0 ± 5.2 29.6 ± 5.3 29.8 ± 6.5 0.918
pH 7.35 ± 0.11 7.33 ± 0.11 7.37 ± 0.12 7.35 ± 0.11 0.059
PaCO2 (mm Hg) 45.0 ± 17.3 44.9 ± 13.7 41.4 ± 14.9 47.2 ± 19.8 0.053
FiO2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.81 ± 0.19 0.79 ± 0.22 0.77 ± 0.23 0.082
PaO2/FiO2 (mm Hg) 129.1 ± 70.0 115.0 ± 66.4 132.3 ± 68.1 133.8 ± 72.3  
Severity of ARDS
 Mild 51(17.2 %) 9(12.9 %) 14(16.9 %) 28(19.6 %) 0.3383
 Moderate 109(36.8 %) 24(34.3 %) 31(37.3 %) 54(37.8 %) 0.7677
 Severe 136(46.0 %) 37(52.9 %) 38(45.8 %) 61(42.7 %) 0.6242
Cause of ARDS
 Pneumonia 141 34(48.6 %) 48(57.8 %) 59(41.3 %) 0.055
 Sepsis 81 18(25.7 %) 21(25.3 %) 42(29.4 %) 0.755
 Aspiration 52 11(15.7 %) 19(22.9 %) 22(15.9 %) 0.323
 Major surgery 8 2(2.9 %) 3(3.6 %) 3(2.1 %) 0.733
 Acute pancreatitis 6 1(1.4 %) 1(1.2 %) 4(2.8 %) 0.872
 Others 8 2(2.9 %) 2(2.4 %) 4(2.8 %) 1.000
Components of CCI
 Myocardial infarct 10 1(1.4 %) 3(3.6 %) 6(4.2 %) 0.570
 CHF 29 8(11.4 %) 9(10.8 %) 12(8.4 %) 0.729
 Peripheral vascular disease 11 4(5.7 %) 2(2.4 %) 5(3.5 %) 0.550
 Cerebrovascular disease 91 25(35.7 %) 24(28.9 %) 42(29.4 %) 0.562
 Dementia 6 3(4.3 %) 1(1.2 %) 2(1.4 %) 0.306
 Chronic pulmonary disease 31 11(15.7 %) 7(8.4 %) 13(9.1 %) 0.258
 Connective tissue disease 1 0(0 %) 1(1.2 %) 0(0 %) 0.276
 Ulcer disease 47 6(8.6 %) 13(15.7 %) 28(19.6 %) 0.118
 Mild liver disease 12 1(1.4 %) 3(3.6 %) 8(5.6 %) 0.341
 Diabetes without end organ damage 80 21(30 %) 17(20.5 %) 42(29.4 %) 0.284
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 16 5(7.1 %) 3(3.6 %) 8(5.6 %) 0.542
 Moderate to severe renal disease 88 25(35.7 %) 18(21.7 %) 45(31.5 %) 0.137
 Diabetes with end organ damage 3 0(0.0 %) 1(1.2 %) 2(1.4 %) 0.472
 Any tumor without metastasis 44 8(11.4 %) 15(18.1 % ) 21(14.7 %) 0.514
 Leukemia 2 0(0 %) 0(0 %) 2(1.4 %) 0.341
 Lymphoma 4 0(0 %) 1(1.2 %) 3(2.1 %) 0.616
 Moderate to severe liver disease 47 0(0.0 %) 16(19.3 %) 31(21.7 %) 0.000*
 Metastatic solid tumor 41 5(7.1 %) 17(20.5 %) 19(13.3 %) 0.057
 AIDS 2 2(2.9 %) 0(0.0 %) 0(0.0 %) 0.039*
  1. Abbreviations: ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, ICU intensive care unit, BMI body mass index, PBW predict body weight, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, APACHE acute physical and chronic health evaluation, SOFA sequential organ function assessment, MOD multiple organ dysfunction, Paw airway pressure, PaO2/FiO2 alveolar oxygen pressure/fraction of inspiratory oxygen, PEEP positive end expiratory pressure, CHF congestive heart failure, AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  2. All values are expressed as No. of patients (%) or mean ± SD
  3. *p < 0.05: Community-acquired ARDS vs. hospital-acquired ARDS vs. ICU-acquired ARDS