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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and nutritional characteristics of the study population

From: Ventilator-derived carbon dioxide production to assess energy expenditure in critically ill patients: proof of concept

Characteristics Data
Number of patients 84
 Male, n (%) 58 (69)
 Female, n (%) 26 (31)
Age, yr (mean ± SD) 63.5 ± 14.9
Height, cm (mean ± SD) 173.7 ± 7.8
Weight, kg (mean ± SD) 79.1 ± 16.0
BMI, kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 4.4
APACHE II score (mean ± SD) 23.9 ± 8.4
APACHE III score (mean ± SD) 91.0 ± 34.3
APACHE IV predicted mortality (mean ± SD) 0.47 ± 0.31
ICU admission diagnosis, n (%)  
 Trauma 15 (17.9)
 Sepsis 12 (14.3)
 Respiratory insufficiency 10 (11.9)
 Postsurgery 18 (21.4)
 Neurologic 4 (4.8)
 Post–cardiac arrest 21 (25)
 Cardiovascular 4 (4.8)
Length of ICU stay at time of study, days, median (IQR) 4.0 (3–6)
Ramsay Sedation Scale score,a median (IQR) 5 (4–6)
Body temperature, °C (mean ± SD) 36.8 ± 0.8
Heart rate, beats/minute (mean ± SD) 91 ± 20
MAP, mmHg (mean ± SD) 84 ± 14
Norepinephrine, n (%) 33 (39.3)
CVVH, n (%) 8 (9.5)
Respiratory rate, breaths/min, median (IQR) 19 (15–24)
Minute volume, L/min (mean ± SD) 9.3 ± 3.2
Tidal volume, ml (mean ± SD) 462 ± 121
PaO2/FiO2 ratio, median (IQR) 220 (180–263)
PEEP, cmH2O, median (IQR) 8 (5–10)
Mechanical ventilation mode, n (%)  
 PS/CPAP 69 (81.4)
 PC 15 (17.9)
Type of nutrition, n (%)  
 Enteral 73 (86.9)
 Parenteral 4 (4.8)
 Combination enteral and parenteral 7 (8.3)
Total nutritional intake, kcal/24 h (mean ± SD) 1748 ± 621
Total macronutrient intake,b kcal/24 h (mean ± SD) 1835 ± 627
Length of mechanical ventilation, days, median (IQR) 8 (6–15)
Length of stay ICU, days, median (IQR) 11 (7–18)
Length of stay hospital, days, median (IQR) 23 (13–45)
ICU mortality, n (%) 29 (30.9)
Hospital mortality, n (%) 36 (38.3)
  1. APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, BMI body mass index, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, CVVH continuous venovenous hemofiltration, ICU intensive care unit IQR interquartile range, MAP mean arterial pressure, PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen, PC pressure control, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, PS pressure support, SD standard deviation
  2. aRamsay Sedation Scale scoring system: 1 = patient anxious and agitated or restless, or both; 2 = patient cooperative, orientated, and tranquil; 3 = patient responds to commands only; 4 = brisk response to a light glabellar tap or auditory stimulus; 5 = sluggish response to light glabellar tap or auditory stimulus; 6 = no response to the stimuli mentioned for scores 4 and 5
  3. bIncluding intake from intravenous propofol and glucose