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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with acute kidney injury, by outcome

From: Fluid balance and mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a multicenter prospective epidemiological study

Characteristics AKI (n = 1172) Survivors (n = 871) Non-survivors (n = 301) P value
Male sex 742 (63.3) 548 (62.9) 194 (64.5) 0.677
Age (yr) 67 (54–78) 64 (52–77) 74 (60–82) <0.001
ICU admission     
APACHE II score 17 (12–23) 15 (11–21) 23 (17–29) <0.001
SAPS II score 40 (31–52) 37 (28–47) 52 (41–64) <0.001
SOFA score 7 (5–10) 7 (4–10) 9 (7–12) <0.001
Vasoactive therapy 576 (49.1) 419 (48.1) 157 (52.2) 0.229
Mechanical ventilation 818 (69.8) 614 (70.5) 204 (67.8) 0.383
Baseline creatinine (μmol/L) 84.9 (73.0–97.0) 84.0 (72.1–97.0) 86.9 (75.0–97.8) 0.78
Sepsis 512 (43.7) 309 (35.5) 203 (67.4) <0.001
Comorbid diseases     
 Cancer 164 (14.0) 112 (12.9) 52 (17.2) 0.067
 Hypertension 523 (44.6) 379 (43.5) 144 (47.8) 0.202
 Cardiovascular 274 (23.4) 177 (20.3) 97 (32.2) <0.001
 Chronic kidney disease 111 (9.5) 79 (9.1) 32 (10.6) 0.493
    Diabetes 240 (20.5) 173 (19.9) 67 (22.2) 0.407
Category of ICU admission diagnosis
 Respiratory 208 (17.7) 125 (14.4) 83 (27.6) <0.001
 Neurologic 178 (15.2) 134 (15.4) 44 (14.6) 0.781
 Postsurgery 556 (47.4) 443 (50.8) 113 (37.5) <0.001
 Cardiovascular 233 (19.9) 170 (19.5) 63 (20.9) 0.615
ICU course     
 Cumulative fluid balance in 3 days (L) 1.40 (−0.49 to 3.54) 0.93 (−0.80 to 2.93) 2.77 (0.86–5.01) <0.001
 Oliguria 96 (8.2) 46 (5.3) 50 (16.6) <0.001
 Use of diuretics (%) 872 (74.4) 635 (72.9) 237 (78.7) 0.047
Outcomes     
 AKI stage     
 1 496 (42.3) 424 (48.7) 72 (23.9)  
 2 289 (24.7) 215 (24.7) 74 (24.6) <0.001
 3 387 (33.0) 232 (26.6) 155 (51.5)  
 RRT 222 (18.9) 125 (14.4) 97 (32.2) <0.001
 Length of ICU stay (days) 7 (5–14) 7 (4–13) 8 (6–14) 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (percent)
  2. AKI acute kidney injury, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, RRT renal replacement therapy