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Table 1 Baseline and intraoperative characteristics

From: Relationship between a perioperative intravenous fluid administration strategy and acute kidney injury following off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: an observational study

Variable Control group RPF group P value
Number of patients 554 229  
Demographics    
 Age (yr) 63.9 ± 9.2 63.7 ± 9.4 0.852
 Male sex 431 (77.8) 179 (78.2) 0.910
Clinical characteristics
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.6 ± 3.1 24.6 ± 3.1 0.706
 EuroSCORE (logistic) 3.6 ± 3.6 3.5 ± 5.1 0.050
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus 263 (47.5) 99 (43.2) 0.279
 Hypertension 365 (65.9) 151 (65.9) 0.988
 Smoker, current 174 (31.4) 58 (25.3) 0.090
 Previous myocardial infarction 69 (12.5) 43 (18.8) 0.022
 Congestive heart failure 16 (2.9) 12 (5.2) 0.107
 s/p PTAC c stent 108 (19.5) 50 (21.8) 0.458
 Cerebrovascular disease 145 (26.2) 44 (19.2) 0.038
 Peripheral vascular disease 61 (11.0) 18 (7.9) 0.183
 eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 81 (14.6) 35 (15.3) 0.812
 Liver disease 25 (4.5) 2 (0.9) 0.011
 Left main coronary artery disease 128 (23.1) 48 (21.0) 0.513
 Coronary angiography <5 days 177 (31.9) 78 (34.1) 0.566
Laboratory data
 Hematocrit (%) 38.5 ± 4.8 38.7 ± 5.4 0.710
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.0 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4 0.469
 Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.8 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.3 <0.001
 Albumin (g/dl) 3.9 ± 0.4 3.8 ± 0.5 0.105
 Uric acid (mg/dl) 5.5 ± 1.5 5.6 ± 1.6 0.745
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 56.4 ± 10.0 57.1 ± 10.5 0.165
Medication
 ACEI or ARB 249 (44.9) 105 (45.9) 0.817
 β-blocker 381 (68.8) 152 (66.4) 0.513
 Calcium channel blocker 416 (75.1) 159 (69.4) 0.103
 Insulin 127 (22.9) 43 (18.8) 0.200
 Oral hypoglycemic agent 209 (37.7) 85 (37.1) 0.873
 Statin 431 (77.8) 202 (88.2) 0.001
 Aspirin 418 (75.5) 201 (87.8) <0.001
 Clopidogrel 298 (53.8) 146 (63.8) 0.010
 Diuretics 104 (18.8) 43 (18.8) 0.999
Intraoperative data
 Anesthesia time (min) 295 [267–335] 300 [275–340] 0.151
 Operation time (min) 228 [200–267] 230 [200–262] 0.882
 Grafts per patient (n) 3 [2–4] 3 [2–3] 0.015
  1. RPF renal protective fluid management, EuroSCORE European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, PTCA c stent percutaneous transluminal catheter angioplasty with stent insertion, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker
  2. Data are expressed as number of patients (%), mean ± standard deviation, or median [interquartile range]