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Table 1 Characteristics of patients identified with severe sepsis by physician diagnosis, consensus criteria, or both

From: Discordant identification of pediatric severe sepsis by research and clinical definitions in the SPROUT international point prevalence study

Characteristic Physician diagnosis Both criteria Consensus criteria p value*
N 137 301 266  
Age (yr) 1 (0.5–7) 3 (0.7–10) 3 (0.7–11) 0.03
Sex, n (%)     0.74
 Male 76 (55) 164 (55) 138 (52)  
 Female 61 (45) 137 (45) 128 (48)  
Comorbid conditions, n (%)     
 Respiratory 54 (39) 73 (24) 99 (37) 0.001
 Gastrointestinal 40 (29) 62 (21) 79 (30) 0.03
 Cardiovascular 34 (25) 62 (21) 74 (28) 0.13
 Genetic 35 (26) 54 (18) 61 (23) 0.14
 Hematologic/immunologic 28 (20) 69 (23) 45 (17) 0.21
 Neuromuscular 11 (8) 37 (12) 60 (23) <0.001
 Neoplastic 18 (13) 51 (17) 29 (11) 0.11
 Prematurity 37 (12) 24 (18) 39 (15) 0.35
 Metabolic 17 (12) 28 (9) 34 (13) 0.38
 Renal 15 (11) 24 (8) 31 (12) 0.31
 Solid organ/stem cell transplant 8 (6) 28 (9) 26 (10) 0.39
Comorbid conditions, n (%)     <0.001
 None 30 (22) 85 (28) 43 (16)  
 1 21 (15) 77 (26) 64 (24)  
  ≥ 2 86 (63) 21 (15) 159 (60)  
Admission POPC, n (%)     0.13
 Good performance 70 (51) 170 (56) 120 (45)  
 Mild disability 26 (19) 44 (15) 41 (15)  
 Moderate disability 22 (16) 44 (15) 46 (17)  
 Severe disability or coma 19 (14) 43 (14) 59 (22)  
PIM-3 scorea 3.6 (1.4–5.5) 4.4 (1.9–9.2) 4.3 (1.8–9.9) <0.001
PELOD scoreb 10 (1–11) 11 (2–13) 11 (2–12) <0.001
Source of admission, n (%)     0.86
 Emergency departmentc 41 (30) 89 (30) 78 (29)  
 Hospital floor 39 (29) 92 (31) 66 (25)  
 Operating room 12 (9) 28 (9) 22 (8)  
 Other hospitald 39 (28) 77 (26) 89 (33)  
Organ dysfunction at sepsis recognitione     
 Cardiovascular 51 (37) 182 (61) 106 (40) <0.001
 Respiratory 88 (64) 211 (70) 197 (74) 0.12
 Renal 5 (4) 19 (6) 7 (3) 0.10
 Hepatic 2 (1) 16 (5) 6 (2) 0.07
 Hematologic 4 (3) 49 (16) 24 (9) <0.001
 Neurologic 9 (7) 28 (9) 33 (12) 0.17
Primary site of infection, n (%)     
 Respiratory 60 (44) 101 (34) 127 (48) 0.002
 Primary bloodstream 25 (18) 82 (27) 26 (10) <0.001
 Abdominal 15 (11) 31 (10) 16 (6) 0.11
 Central nervous system 3 (2) 9 (3) 16 (6) 0.11
 Genitourinary 7 (5) 12 (4) 9 (3) 0.67
 Skin 4 (3) 16 (5) 4 (2) 0.04
 Other 6 (4) 16 (5) 13 (5) 0.95
 Unknown 17 (12) 34 (11) 55 (21) 0.006
Microbiology,f,g n (%)     
 Gram-positive bacteria 39 (28) 90 (30) 60 (23) 0.13
 Gram-negative bacteria 27 (20) 95 (32) 63 (24) 0.02
 Fungus 9 (7) 39 (13) 37 (14) 0.07
 Virus 35 (26) 50 (17) 69 (26) 0.01
 No organism identified 50 (36) 95 (32) 101 (38) 0.25
  1. Data are presented as median (IQR) unless otherwise noted
  2. POPC Pediatric Overall Performance Category, ScvO2 central venous oxygen saturation, PIM-3 Pediatric Index of Mortality-3, PELOD Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction, PICU pediatric intensive care unit
  3. *Statistical comparisons using Kruskal-Wallis or Fisher’s exact test
  4. aPIM-3 measured at time of PICU admission
  5. bPELOD score calculated from data within a 48-h time window around the study day (9:00 am before to 9:00 am after the study day)
  6. cEmergency department at the same hospital as the PICU
  7. dOther hospital includes emergency department at another hospital
  8. eBased on organ dysfunction criteria defined by the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference [6]
  9. fCategories do not add up to 100 %, as some infections were polymicrobial
  10. gSources of positive isolates included blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, respiratory (nasopharynx, tracheal, bronchoalveolar lavage), stool, wound, and other normally sterile body fluids (pleural, pericardial, peritoneal)