Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients admitted with presumed sepsis

From: Likelihood of infection in patients with presumed sepsis at the time of intensive care unit admission: a cohort study

  All Post-hoc plausibility of infection
None Possible Probable Definite p value
Number 2579 (100 %) 332 (13 %) 771 (30 %) 633 (25 %) 843 (33 %) n/a
Demographics       
 Age (years) 62 (49, 71) 62 (48, 72) 62 (51, 71) 62 (49, 71) 62 (49, 71) 0.73
 Gender, male 1540 (60 %) 181 (55 %) 493 (64 %) 365 (58 %) 501 (59 %) 0.04
 Race, Caucasian 2257 (88 %) 278 (84 %) 688 (89 %) 552 (87 %) 739 (88 %) 0.09
 Body mass index >30 kg/m2 479 (19 %) 53 (16 %) 166 (22 %) 93 (15 %) 167 (20 %) 0.004
Comorbidities       
 Charlson comorbidity index 3.5 (0, 9.1) 1.5 (0, 8.1) 2.5 (0.0, 9.4) 4.6 (0.0, 9.4) 4.6 (0.0, 9.7) 0.02
 Cardiovascular diseasea 605 (23 %) 81 (24 %) 204 (26 %) 142 (22 %) 178 (21 %) 0.07
 Respiratory insufficiencyb 432 (17 %) 50 (15 %) 141 (18 %) 120 (19 %) 121 (14 %) 0.05
 Renal insufficiencyc 329 (13 %) 31 (9 %) 98 (13 %) 70 (11 %) 130 (15 %) 0.02
 Malignancyd 239 (9 %) 20 (6 %) 61 (8 %) 68 (11 %) 90 (11 %) 0.02
 Immunocompromised statee 628 (24 %) 68 (20 %) 159 (21 %) 173 (27 %) 228 (27 %) 0.002
 Diabetes mellitus 486 (19 %) 63 (19 %) 143 (19 %) 119 (19 %) 161 (19 %) 0.99
Admission characteristics       
 Surgical admission 661 (26 %) 88 (27 %) 186 (24 %) 122 (19 %) 265 (31 %) <0.001
 APACHE IV score 77 (66, 100) 74 (58, 101) 75 (58, 96) 79 (61, 100) 79 (60, 101) 0.08
 Core temperature 37.8 (37.0, 38.6) 37.6 (36.9, 38.4) 37.7 (37.0, 38.5) 37.9 (37.1, 38.6) 37.9 (37.1, 38.7) <0.001
 White blood cell count 14.2 (9.6, 19.8) 13.5 (9.9, 18.8) 14.6 (10.4, 19.0) 14.2 (9.6, 20.1) 14.5 (8.5, 20.5) 0.88
 C-reactive protein 114 (35, 229) 36 (8, 102) 86 (19, 181) 125 (47, 234) 170 (78, 270) <0.001
 Creatinine 104 (70, 171) 101 (68, 167) 100 (69, 157) 94 (65, 158) 118 (75, 198) <0.001
Sepsis severity at admission       <0.001
 Sepsis 1076 (42 %) 175 (53 %) 380 (49 %) 238 (38 %) 283 (34 %)  
 Severe sepsis 727 (28 %) 70 (21 %) 224 (29 %) 198 (31 %) 235 (28 %)  
 Septic shock 776 (30 %) 87 (26 %) 167 (22 %) 197 (31 %) 325 (39 %)  
Organ failure at admissionf       
 Central nervous system 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.22
 Cardiovascular 3.0 (1.0, 4.0) 3.0 (1.0, 4.0) 3.0 (1.0, 4.0) 3.0 (1.0, 4.0) 3.0 (1.0, 4.0) <0.001
 Respiratory 2.5 (2.0, 3.0) 3.0 (2.0, 3.0) 3.0 (2.0, 3.0) 3.0 (2.0, 3.0) 2.0 (2.0, 3.0) 0.35
 Renal 0.0 (0.0, 2.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 1.0 (0.0, 3.0) <0.001
 Hepatic 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) <0.001
 Coagulation 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0) 0.0 (0.0, 1.5) <0.001
 Total 7.0 (5.0, 10) 7.0 (5.0, 10) 7.0 (4.0, 9.0) 7.0 (5.0, 9.0) 8.0 (5.0, 11) <0.001
Treatment at admission       
 Mechanical ventilation 2016 (78 %) 261 (79 %) 608 (79 %) 492 (78 %) 655 (78 %) 0.93
 Dialysis 263 (10 %) 39 (12 %) 67 (9 %) 54 (9 %) 103 (12 %) 0.037
  1. Data presented as median (interquartile range) or number (%). The four infection plausibility classes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test or the chi-squared test
  2. aCardiovascular disease was defined as cerebrovascular disease or chronic cardiovascular insufficiency (New York Heart Association class 4), chronic congestive heart failure (ejection fraction <30 %), or peripheral vascular disease (intermittent claudication, patients with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, or bypass for arterial insufficiency)
  3. bRespiratory insufficiency was defined as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic respiratory insufficiency with functional disabilities (chronic mechanical ventilation, oxygen use at home, or severe pulmonary hypertension)
  4. cRenal insufficiency was defined as chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine >177 μmol/l) or chronic dialysis
  5. dMalignancy included both metastatic and hematologic malignancies
  6. eImmunocompromised state was defined as having acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the use of corticosteroids in high doses (equivalent to prednisolone of >75 mg/day for at least 1 week), current use of immunosuppressive drugs, current use of antineoplastic, drugs recent hematologic malignancy, or documented humoral or cellular deficiency
  7. fBased on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores
  8. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, n/a not applicable