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Table 4 Multivariate analysis for factors associated with subsequent shock in emergency medical service resuscitation in patients with initial nonshockable rhythms

From: Subsequent shock deliveries are associated with increased favorable neurological outcomes in cardiac arrest patients who had initially non-shockable rhythms

  Odds ratio (95 % CI) P value
Age 0.98 (0.97–0.98) <0.0001
Male 0.85 (0.70–1.03) 0.11
Public location 1.12 (0.89–1.41) 0.34
Witnessed arrest 1.37 (1.12–1.66) 0.0018
Bystander CPR 0.90 (0.73–1.10) 0.30
Call–response interval 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.13
Initial rhythm PEA 2.67 (2.19–3.25) <0.0001
Etiology   
 Cardiac (reference) 1  
 Asphyxia 0.30 (0.21–0.43) <0.0001
 Trauma 0.09 (0.05–0.18) <0.0001
 Aortic disease 0.46 (0.29–0.71) 0.00047
 Drowning 0.53 (0.29–0.95) 0.0330
 Cerebrovascular disease 0.40 (0.22–0.75) 0.0044
 Drug overdose 0.44 (0.14–1.42) 0.17
 Others or unknown 0.47 (0.37–0.60) <0.0001
  1. P values calculated using a multivariate logistic regression
  2. CI confidence interval, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, PEA pulseless electrical activity