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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Low B and T lymphocyte attenuator expression on CD4+ T cells in the early stage of sepsis is associated with the severity and mortality of septic patients: a prospective cohort study

  Control SIRS Sepsis Severe sepsis Septic shock P value
Number 50 59 93 71 63  
Age, years 68 (66−74) 70 (59−78) 71 (66−78) 73 (62−77) 74 (64−79) 0.34
Male, % 62.0 57.6 60.2 63.4 60.3 0.97
WBC, ×109/L 6.6 (5.6−7.6) 9.2 (8.1−11.6) 11.9 (9.6−14.2) 14.9 (10.9−17.7) 16.6 (13.5−19.6) <0.001
Lymphocytes, ×109/L 2.8 (2.4−3.1) 1.4 (1.0−1.7) 1.1 (0.9−1.7) 0.8(0.5−1.2) 0.6 (0.4−0.9) <0.001
PCT, g/ml 0.06 (0.05−0.1) 0.2 (0.05−0.3) 1.0 (0.2−2.1) 4.6 (0.9−8.1) 8.3 (1.8−22.3) <0.001
MEDS score 0 5 (3−7) 9 (6.5−11) 12 (9−16) 19 (16−23) <0.001
Percentage of BTLA+/CD4+T cells
  90.3 (85.6−91.9) 91.3 (89.0−93.2) 88.4 (81.9−91.3) 86.5 (78.6−90.1) 79.5 (63.6−86.6) <0.001
MFI of BTLA on CD4+ T cells
  7.2 (6.0−8.1) 10.2 (8.7−13.3) 8.7 (7.0−11.0) 7.6 (6.2−8.9) 6.5 (4.9−8.7) <0.001
Diagnosis (number)
Respiratory   AECOPD (27) Pneumonia (58) Pneumonia (58) Pneumonia (58) 0.80
Asthma (14)
Abdominal   Pancreatitis (8) IAI (17) IAI (13) IAI (11) 0.88
Urinary    Pyelonephritis (4) Pyelonephritis (7) Pyelonephritis (4) 0.36
Cerebral   Stroke (4) Meningitis (9) Meningitis (5) Meningitis (9) 0.44
Others   DKA (6) Skin/soft tissue infection (5)    
28-day mortality, number (%) 5 (8.5 %) 18 (19.5 %) 33 (46.5 %) 37 (58.7 %) <0.001
  1. Data are shown as median and interquartile range (IQR) unless stated otherwise. WBC white blood cells, PCT procalcitonin, MEDS Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis, BTLA B and T lymphocyte attenuator, MFI mean of fluorescence intensities, AECOPD acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IAI intraabdominal infection, DKA diabetic ketoacidosis, ED Emergency Department, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome