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Table 3 Comparison of patient characteristics, severity at ICU admission, microbiological data, and therapeutic measures between survivors and non-survivors after ICU admission for bacterial meningitis (n=157)

From: Rifampin use in acute community-acquired meningitis in intensive care units: the French retrospective cohort ACAM-ICU study

Characteristics Non-survivors Survivors p Value
n=23 n=134  
Demographics   IQR   IQR  
 Age, yr 65 [40.6–74.3] 41 [28.7–59.1] 0.003
 Female sex 4/23 17.4 % 56/134 41.8 % 0.035
 Immunosuppression 9/23 39.1 % 20/134 14.9 % 0.016
 Alcohol use disorder 7/23 30.4 % 11/132 8.3 % 0.007
 Asplenia 2/23 8.7 % 4/133 3.0 % NS
 HIV infection 3/23 13.0 % 5/133 3.8 % 0.096
Severity at ICU admission
 Glasgow Coma Scale score 7 [4–9] 12 [9–15] <10−3
 Mechanical ventilation 20/21 95.2 % 40/115 34.8 % 0.004
 Severe sepsis or septic shock 21/21 100.0 % 94/115 81.7 % 0.043
 SAPS II 64 [53–73] 27 [15–36] <10−3
 LOD system      
  Neurologic 21/21 100.0 % 61/115 53.0 % <10−3
  Pulmonary 20/21 95.2 % 40/115 34.8 % <10−3
  Hematologic 12/21 57.1 % 45/115 39.1 % 0.151
  Cardiovascular 12/21 57.1 % 38/115 33.0 % 0.048
  Renal 13/21 61.9 % 19/115 16.5 % <10−3
  Hepatic 0/21 0.0 % 0/115 0.0 %
Microbiology
 CSF white cell count/mm3 1900 [290–4500] 1770 [494–5050] NS
 CSF protein rate, g/L 8.4 [4.7–10.6] 3.1 [1.8–4.9] <10−3
 Positive direct examination of CSF 17/22 77.3 % 84/130 64.6 % NS
Streptococcus pneumoniae as causative bacterium 18/23 81.8 % 58/134 43.3 % 0.003
  Penicillin non-susceptible isolates 7/14 31.8 % 25/52 48.1 % NS
Neisseria meningitidis as causative bacterium 1/23 4.5 % 43/134 32.1 % 0.005
Therapeutic measures
 Time between hospital admission and first dose of antibiotic (h) 4 [1.9–8.5] 2.4 [0.7–6] 0.102
 Association of antibiotics as initial therapy 22/23 95.7 % 97/134 72.4 % 0.016
 Treatment with rifampin during the hospitalization 2/23 8.7 % 30/134 22.4 % 0.168
 Early treatment with rifampin (within first 24 h) 0/23 0.0 % 19/134 14.2 % 0.078
 Treatment with vancomycin during hospitalization 20/23 87.0 % 78/134 58.2 % 0.01
 Early treatment with vancomycin (within first 24 h) 17/23 73.9 % 66/134 49.3 % 0.041
 Treatment with corticosteroids during hospitalization 18/23 78.3 % 87/134 64.9 % NS
 Time between hospital admission and first dose of corticosteroids (h) 8 [5–13] 5.4 [1.7–9.5] 0.042
  1. SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, LOD Logistic Organ Dysfunction system
  2. Data are proportions of patients and percentages or median values [interquartile range]
  3. p Values <0.2 are detailed. p Values <0.05 were considered significant (bold)