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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors associated with hospital mortality

From: Adequate antibiotic therapy prior to ICU admission in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock reduces hospital mortality

  Alive (%) (n = 397) Death (%) (n = 241) p value Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Age 60 (45–71) 65 (55–73) <0.001 1.01 (1.00–1.25) 0.050   
Female gender 176 (44.2) 96 (39.8) 0.248 0.81 (0.54–1.21) 0.314   
APACHE II score 16 (11–20) 22 (17–27) <0.001 1.10 (1.07–1.14) <0.001 1.10 (1.07–1.14) <0.001
SOFA (median, IQR) 6 (4–9) 10 (7–12) <0.001     
Worst SOFA 7 (4–10) 11 (9–14) <0.001     
Surgical admission 213 (53.6) 129 (53.5) 0.975     
Hospital acquisition 133 (33.5) 84 (34.9) 0.662     
Comorbidities        
 Diabetes 82 (20.6) 66 (27.4) 0.054     
 COPD 30 (7.6) 30 (12.4) 0.040 1.10 (0.57–2.12) 0.755   
 Cirrhosis 10 (2.5) 30 (12.4) <0.001 3.52 (1.49–8.28) 0.004 3.74 (1.60–8.76) 0.002
 Malignancy 60 (15.1) 61 (25.3) 0.002 1.50 (0.90–2.48) 0.112 1.65 (1.02–2.70) 0.042
 Chronic renal failure 26 (6.5) 23 (9.5) 0.173     
 Immunosuppression 47 (11.8) 54 (22.4) <0.001 1.47 (1.85–2.54) 0.168   
 Heart failure 18 (4.5) 15 (6.2) 0.350     
Sepsis source        
 Chest 55 (13.8) 54 (22.4) 0.006 1.84 (1.07–3.15) 0.026 1.91 (1.12–3.21) 0.016
 Urinary 64 (16.1) 11 (4.5) <0.001 0.20 (0.09–0.42) <0.001 0.20 (0.09–0.42) <0.001
 Abdomen 188 (47.3) 118 (48.9) 0.730     
 Central nervous system 15 (3.7) 5 (2.1) 0.228     
 Soft tissue 39 (9.8) 31 (12.8) 0.241     
 Catheter 15 (3.7) 8 (3.3) 0.756     
 Unidentified 11 (2.7) 9 (3.7) 0.504     
Difficult-to-treat pathogens 94 (23.6) 59 (24.5) 0.859     
Positive blood culture 196 (49.3) 125 (51.9) 0.576     
Septic shock 208 (52.3) 194 (80.5) <0.001 2.55 (1.62–4.03) <0.001 2.47 (1.57–3.87) <0.001
Nosocomial infection 73 (18.3) 58 (24.1) 0.070     
Prior ICU adequate antimicrobial therapy 305 (76.8) 139 (57.7) <0.001 0.37 (0.25–0.57) <0.001 0.37 (0.24–0.56) <0.001
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IQR interquartile range, OR odds ratio, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment