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Table 1 Features of patients with adequate empirical antimicrobial therapy before or after ICU admission

From: Adequate antibiotic therapy prior to ICU admission in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock reduces hospital mortality

  Before ICU (%) Post ICU (%) p value
(n = 444) (n = 194)
Age 61 (47–71) 66 (53–73) 0.004
Gender (female) 200 (45) 72 (36.9) 0.056
APACHE II score 18 (12–23) 19 (14–24) 0.149
SOFA (median, IQR) 7 (4–10) 8 (5–10) 0.170
Worst SOFA 8 (5–12) 9 (6–12) 0.044
Surgical admission 225 (50.6) 115 (59) 0.060
Acquisition  
 Community acquisition 324 (73) 97 (50) <0.001
 Hospital acquisition 120 (27) 97 (50)
Comorbidities    
 Diabetes 102 (23) 46 (23.6) 0.865
 COPD 34 (7.6) 26 (13.3) 0.024
 Cirrhosis 24 (5.4) 16 (8.2) 0.183
 Malignancy 75 (16.9) 46 (23.6) 0.047
 Chronic renal failure 38 (8.6) 11 (5.6) 0.202
 Immunosuppression 68 (15.3) 33 (16.9) 0.608
 Heart failure 24 (5.4) 9 (4.6) 0.678
Sepsis source    
 Chest 80 (18) 29 (14.9) 0.330
 Urinary 59 (13.3) 16 (8.2) 0.066
 Abdomen (45) 106 (54.4) 0.030
 Central nervous system 18 (4.1) 2 (1) 0.043
 Soft tissue 51 (11.5) 19 (9.7) 0.516
 Catheter 15 (3.4) 8 (4.1) 0.651
 Unidentified 12 (2.7) 8 (4.1) 0.349
Positive blood culture 224 (50.5) 97 (49.7) 0.869
Type of pathogen isolated    
 Gram-positive 111 (25) 36 (18.6) 0.080
 Gram-negative 196 (44.1) 88 (45.4) 0.847
 Anaerobic 7 (1.6) 1 (0.5) 0.289
 Fungus 5 (1.1) 8 (4.1) 0.028
 Polymicrobial 120 (27) 59 (30.4) 0.304
 Others 5 (1.1) 2 (1) 0.141
Difficult-to-treat pathogens 86 (19.3) 67 (34.3) <0.001
Septic shock 281 (63.3) 121 (62.4) 0.825
Mechanical ventilation 172 (38.7) 100 (51.5) 0.002
Nosocomial infection 89 (20.1) 43/194 (22.2) 0.580
ICU stay 8 (5–15) 9 (5–17) 0.114
Hospital stay 25 (15–41) 38 (21–52) 0.052
ICU mortality 121 (27.2) 88 (45.4) <0.001
Hospital mortality 139 (31.3) 103 (52.8) <0.001
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRBI catheter-related bloodstream infection, IQR interquartile range, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment