Skip to main content

Table 3 Adverse events and concomitant treatments with corresponding odds ratios for poor neurological outcomes at the time of hospital discharge

From: Adverse events associated with poor neurological outcome during targeted temperature management and advanced critical care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Category AEs and concomitant treatments Total N (%) CPC 1 and 2 n (%) CPC 3–5 n (%) OR (95 % CI) p Adjusted OR (95 % CI) p
   704 (100) 228(32.4) 476 (67.6)     
Cooling -related AEs Overcoolinga 128 (18.2) 23 (10.1) 105 (22.1) 2.52 (1.56–4.09) <.001 1.16 (0.58–2.31) 0.681
Bradycardiab 83 (11.8) 35 (15.4) 48 (10.1) 0.62 (0.39–0.99) 0.044 0.75 (0.37–1.53) 0.429
Tachyarrhythmia 67 (9.5) 24 (10.5) 43 (9.0) 0.84 (0.50–1.43) 0.528 0.72 (0.33–1.55) 0.398
Hypokalemiac 220 (31.3) 65 (28.5) 155 (32.6) 1.21 (0.86–1.71) 0.278 1.21 (0.71–2.04) 0.486
Hyperglycemiad 321 (45.6) 81 (35.5) 240 (50.4) 1.85 (1.33–2.56) <.001 1.37 (0.84–2.24) 0.210
Bleeding 21 (3.0) 6 (2.6) 15 (3.2) 1.20 (0.46–3.15) 0.705 0.89 (0.21–3.71) 0.872
Hypotensione 204 (29.0) 54 (23.7) 150 (31.5) 1.48 (1.03–2.13) 0.033 1.03 (0.59–1.79) 0.926
Rewarming -related AEs Rebound hyperthermiaf 85 (12.1) 29 (12.7) 56 (11.8) 0.92 (0.57–1.48) 0.716 1.33 (0.61–2.92) 0.473
Arrhythmia 42 (6.0) 10 (4.4) 32 (6.7) 1.57 (0.76–3.25) 0.224 1.70 (0.61–4.69) 0.308
Hyperkalemiag 48 (6.8) 7 (3.1) 41 (8.6) 2.96 (1.31–6.74) 0.009 1.09 (0.37–3.19) 0.881
Hypoglycemiah 70 (9.9) 22 (9.7) 48 (10.7) 1.05 (0.62–1.79) 0.858 1.14 (0.50–2.57) 0.762
Bleeding 14 (2.0) 3 (1.3) 11 (2.3) 1.77 (0.49–6.41) 0.383 1.05 (0.18–6.06) 0.956
Hypotensione 152 (21.6) 36 (15.8) 116 (24.4) 1.72 (1.14–2.60) 0.01 0.99 (0.54–1.83) 0.984
Other AEs during advanced critical care Concomitant treatments Pneumoniai 279 (39.6) 70 (30.7) 209 (43.9) 1.77 (1.26–2.47) <.001 1.05 (0.63–1.74) 0.852
Sepsis 100 (14.2) 17 (7.5) 83 (17.4) 2.62 (1.52–4.53) <.001 3.12 (1.40–6.97) 0.005
Myoclonusj 154 (21.9) 34 (14.9) 120 (25.2) 1.92 (1.27–2.92) 0.002 3.72 (1.93–7.16) <.001
Seizurek 153 (21.7) 24 (10.5) 129 (27.1) 3.16 (1.98–5.05) <.001 4.02 (2.04–7.91) <.001
Hypoglycemial 162 (23.0) 36 (15.8) 126 (26.5) 1.92 (1.27–2.89) 0.002 2.03 (1.09–3.78) 0.025
Anticonvulsants 287 (40.8) 71 (31.1) 216 (45.4) 1.84 (1.32–2.56) <.001 1.69 (1.03–2.77) 0.039
Insulin 460 (65.3) 136(59.7) 324 (68.1) 1.44 (1.04–2.00) 0.028 0.98 (0.60–1.62) 0.944
Analgesics 323 (45.9) 122 (53.5) 201 (42.2) 0.64 (0.46–0.87) 0.005 0.75 (0.46–1.21) 0.239
Sedatives 657 (93.3) 222 (97.4) 435 (91.4) 0.29 (0.12–0.69) 0.005 0.92 (0.29–2.96) 0.888
Neuromuscular blockers 475 (67.5) 174 (76.3) 301 (63.2) 0.53 (0.37–0.76) 0.001 0.48 (0.28–0.84) 0.009
  1. AEs adverse events, CPC cerebral performance category, OR odds ratio, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval
  2. a < 32 °C
  3. bHeart rate <40 bpm
  4. c ≤ 3.0 mEq/L
  5. d ≥ 180 mg/Dl
  6. eSBP <90 mmHg or MAP <60 mmHg for at least 30 min or the need for supportive measures (fluid loading and vasopressors or inotropic or both) to maintain a SBP >90 mmHg or MAP >60 mmHg
  7. f > 38 °C within 24 hours of the cessation of cooling
  8. g ≥ 5.0 mEq/L
  9. h ≤ 80 mg/dL
  10. iFour requirements: 1) new or progressive consolidation on the chest radiograph, 2) fever, 3) leukocytosis, and 4) the presence of purulent tracheobronchial secretions
  11. jClinically involuntary movement without epileptiform discharge on EEG
  12. kEither clinically involuntary movement with epileptiform discharge on electroencephalogram (EEG) or epileptiform discharge only on EEG
  13. l ≤ 80 mg/dL within 72 hours after ROSC