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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Adverse events associated with poor neurological outcome during targeted temperature management and advanced critical care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Patient characteristics Good neurological outcome (CPC 1 and 2) n = 228 (32.4) Poor neurological outcome (CPC 3–5) n = 476 (67.6) p
Background variables
Age, years 50 (40–60) 59 (47–71) <.001
Male 177 (77.6) 323 (67.9) 0.008
Previously healthya 130 (57.0) 178 (37.4) <.001
Myocardial infarction 13 (5.7) 26 (5.5) 0.897
Angina 19 (8.3) 29 (6.1) 0.270
Congestive heart failure 5 (2.2) 19 (4.0) 0.219
Hypertension 57 (25.0) 172 (36.1) 0.003
Diabetes mellitus 29 (12.7) 116 (24.4) <.001
Pulmonary disease 4 (1.8) 35 (7.4) 0.002
Stroke 4 (1.8) 27 (5.7) 0.018
Other neurological disease 7 (3.1) 35 (7.4) 0.025
Renal disease 4 (1.8) 37 (7.8) 0.001
Liver cirrhosis 1 (0.4) 9 (1.9) 0.180
Malignancy 5 (2.2) 14 (2.9) 0.567
Resuscitation variables
Witnessed arrest 182 (79.8) 290 (60.9) <.001
Bystander CPR 85 (37.3) 121 (25.4) 0.001
First monitored rhythm    <.001
VF/pulseless VT 148 (64.9) 89 (18.7)  
Pulseless electrical activity 28 (12.3) 77 (16.2)  
Asystole 41 (17.9) 299 (62.8)  
Unknown 11 (4.8) 11 (2.3)  
Cardiac cause of arrest 201 (88.2) 232 (48.7) <.001
Time from arrest to ROSC, min 24.5 (16.5–34.5) 33 (25–45) <.001
Post-resuscitation variables
Initial Glasgow coma scale ≥5 76 (33.3) 23 (4.8) <.001
Initial presence of pupillary light reflex 178 (78.1) 132 (27.7) <.001
ST-elevation myocardial infarction 36 (15.8) 26 (5.5) <.001
Cardiogenic shockb 64 (28.1) 127 (26.7) 0.698
Thrombolysis 2 (0.9) 3 (0.6) 0.661
Coronary angiography 152 (66.7) 50 (10.5) <.001
Percutaneous coronary intervention 44 (19.3) 25 (5.3) <.001
Coronary artery bypass graft 7 (3.1) 0 (0.0) <.001
Intra-aortic balloon pump 8 (3.5) 11 (2.3) 0.359
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 4 (1.8) 10 (2.1) 1.000
Continuous renal replacement therapy 4 (1.8) 49 (10.3) <.001
Time from arrest to initiation of cooling, min 142 (81.5–247.5) 140 (80–240) 0.629
Time from arrest to 34 °C, min 385 (257.5–570) 307 (200–2454.5) <.001
Rewarming time, min 666 (420–780) 720 (480–990) 0.002
  1. Data are presented as medians (interquartile range) or counts (percentage)
  2. CPC cerebral performance category, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation
  3. aAbsence of the listed diseases
  4. bHypotension (SBP <90 mmHg or MAP <60 mmHg for at least 30 min or the need for supportive measures (fluid loading and vasopressors or inotropic or both) to maintain a SBP >90 mmHg or MAP >60 mmHg) and end-organ hypoperfusion (cool extremities)