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Table 1 Demographic and admission characteristics, type of hospitalization, infectious characteristics and length of stay in non-survivors and survivors

From: A positive fluid balance is an independent prognostic factor in patients with sepsis

  Patients Non-survivors Survivors p value
n = 173 n = 59 n = 114
Male 117 (68) 35 (59) 82 (72) 0.093
Age (years) 61 ± 16 63 ± 16 60 ± 16 0.185
Weight (kg) 75 ± 20 75 ± 21 75 ± 20 0.897
Septic shock 135 (78) 57 (97) 78 (68) <0.001
Duration of shock (days) 3 ± 2 4 ± 2 2 ± 2 <0.001
Comorbidities     
 Coronary artery disease 26 (15) 10 (17) 16 (14) 0.611
 Hypertension 47 (27) 16 (27) 31 (27) 0.992
 COPD 25 (15) 8 (14) 17 (15) 0.81
 Cirrhosis 19 (11) 10 (17) 9 (8) 0.071
 Diabetes 45 (26) 14 (24) 31 (27) 0.622
 Cancer 33 (19) 17 (29) 16 (14) 0.019
 Immunosuppression 16 (9) 6 (10) 10 (9) 0.764
Variables at ICU admission     
 SOFA score 8.2 ± 3.4 9.0 ± 3.3 7.7 ± 3.3 0.023
  Cardiovascular subscore 3 [1–3] 3 [1–4] 3 [1–3] 0.008
  Renal subscore 1 [0–2] 1 [0–2] 0 [0–2] 0.198
  Coagulation subscore 0 [0–2] 0 [0–2] 0 [0–2] 0.728
  Lung subscore 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 0.059
  Hepatic subscore 0 [0–2] 0 [0–2] 0 [0–1] 0.365
  Neurological subscore 0 [0–2] 1 [0–3] 0 [0–2] 0.099
 CRP (mg/l) 170 ± 140 128 ± 111 193 ± 149 0.01
 Lactate (mmol/l) 2.9 ± 2.4 3.8 ± 3.4 2.5 ± 1.5 0.148
Origin     0.487
 Emergency room 46 (27) 15 (25) 31 (27)  
 Ambulance 12 (7) 2 (3) 10 (9)  
 Hospital ward 81 (47) 28 (48) 53 (47)  
 Other hospital 34 (20) 14 (24) 20 (18)  
Type of admission     0.644
 Medical 103 (60) 38 (64) 65 (57)  
 Elective surgery 30 (17) 9 (15) 21 (18)  
 Emergency surgery 40 (23) 12 (20) 28 (25)  
Source of sepsis     
 Lung 65 (38) 31 (53) 34 (30) 0.003
 Abdomen 73 (42) 21 (36) 52 (46) 0.206
 Urinary tract 14 (8) 3 (5) 11 (10) 0.297
 Catheter/blood infection 14 (8) 6 (10) 8 (7) 0.471
 Osteoarticular 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (2) 0.306
 Skin 10 (6) 4 (7) 6 (5) 0.685
 Other 8 (5) 2 (3) 6 (5) 0.578
 Not found 5 (3) 3 (5) 2 (2) 0.215
Microorganisms     
 Gram-negative 113 (65) 39 (66) 74 (65) 0.876
   E. coli 48 (28) 18 (31) 30 (26) 0.559
  Pseudomonas 23 (13) 10 (17) 13 (11) 0.308
  Other 75 (43) 27 (46) 46 (40) 0.645
 Gram-positive 71 (41) 28 (48) 43 (38) 0.217
  Staphylococci 27 (16) 12 (20) 15 (13) 0.217
  Streptococci 24 (14) 8 (14) 16 (14) 0.932
  Other 26 (15) 11 (19) 15 (13) 0.338
 Fungi 33 (19) 14 (24) 19 (17) 0.262
  Candida 24 (14) 8 (14) 16 (14) 0.932
  Aspergillus 9 (5) 6 (10) 3 (3) 0.034
  Other 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (2) 0.306
 Virus 4 (2) 3 (5) 1 (1) 0.081
 No microorganisms found 27 (16) 9 (15) 18 (16) 0.937
Number of different microorganisms     0.059
 0 27 (16) 9 (15) 18 (16)  
 1 65 (38) 18 (31) 47 (41)  
 2 52 (30) 16 (27) 36 (32)  
 ≥3 29 (17) 16 (27) 13 (11)  
Duration of ICU stay (days) 6 [4–10] 7 [4–12] 6 [4–8] 0.17
Duration of hospital stay (days) 31 ± 29 18 ± 19 38 ± 31 <0.001
Time between hospitalization and ICU admission (days) 6 ± 13 8 ± 16 6 ± 11 0.084
  1. Values are given as number (percentage), median [25th–75th percentile], or mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRP C-reactive protein, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment