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Table 3 Outcome metrics in the pre- and post-implementation periods

From: Perioperative goal-directed therapy and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery: a historical-prospective, comparative effectiveness study

  Pre-implementation (n = 128) Post-implementation (n = 203) p value Odds ratio (95 % CI)
Primary outcome     
 LOS in the hospital (nights) 10 (6–16) 7 (5–11) NA NA
 LOS in the hospital (log transformed) 2.31 ± 0.62 2.03 ± 0.57 0.0002 NA
Secondary outcomes     
 LOS in the ICU (nights) 1 (1–3) 1 (0–2) NA NA
 LOS in the ICU (log 1+ LOS ICU) 0.97 ± 0.98 0.72 ± 0.68 0.02 NA
 PRBC transfusion (n (%)) 56 (43.8) 65 (32.2) 0.12 0.65 (0.38–1.12)
 Units of PRBC transfused per patients transfused (n) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–3) 0.34 NA
 Extubation within 6 hours after surgery (n (%)) 102 (79.7) 174 (86.1) 0.21 1.66 (0.76–3.63)
 NSQIP complication (n (%)) 51 (39.8) 50 (24.8) 0.03 0.51 (0.31–0.93)
 Type of complication (n (%))     
  AKI 2 (1.6) 2 (1.0) NA NA
  Delirium 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5) NA NA
  DVT 4 (3.1) 3 (1.5) NA NA
  Illeus 3 (2.3) 11 (5.4) NA NA
  Myocardial infarction 0 (0.0) 2 (1.0) NA NA
  Stroke 4 (3.1) 2 (1.0) NA NA
  Pneumonia 11 (8.6) 7 (3.5) 0.35 0.60 (0.21–1.74)
  Sepsis 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5) NA NA
  SSI 21 (16.4) 17 (8.4) 0.03 0.44 (0.21–0.93)
  UTI 6 (4.7) 5 (2.5) NA NA
 30-day readmission (n (%)) 35 (27.3) 38 (18.8) 0.14 0.65 (0.37–1.15)
 30-day mortality (n (%)) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.0) NA NA
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, CI, confidence interval, DVT deep vein thrombosis, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, NA not applicable (or events were too rare for analysis), NSQIP National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, PRBC packed red blood cells, SSI surgical site infection, UTI urinary tract infection