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Table 3 The hazard for 28-day mortality as a function of time to antibiotics in ED patients with suspected infection in three categories of illness severity

From: The association between time to antibiotics and relevant clinical outcomes in emergency department patients with various stages of sepsis: a prospective multi-center study

  Crude model (HR (95% CI) Corrected model (HR (95% CI) P (Corrected model)
PIRO group 1 to 7 (n = 413)
Antibiotics <1 hour (reference category) 1 1 0.422a
Antibiotics 1–3 hours 0.95 (0.17-5.18) 2.55 (0.36-18.25) 0.352
Antibiotics >3 hours 1.98 (0.36-10.78) 5.31 (0.43-68.16) 0.191
Type of hospital (academic versus urban)   0.06 (0.007-0.48) 0.008
P score   2.53 (1.41-4.56) 0.002
Appropriateness of antibiotics   0.33 (0.06-1.66) 0.180
Amount of oxygen (L/min)   1.17 (1.02-1.35) 0.028
Amount of fluids (L/ ED stay)   1.65 (0.76-3.59) 0.205
PIRO group 8 to 14 (n = 532)
Antibiotics <1 hour (reference category) 1 1 0.676a
Antibiotics 1–3 hours 1.11 (0.62-1.99) 1.25 (0.62-2.31) 0.488
Antibiotics >3 hours 0.65 (0.22-1.90) 0.86 (0.28-2.63) 0.786
Type of hospital (academic versus urban)   0.35 (0.19-0.68) 0.002
P score   1.29 (1.14-1.46) <0.001
R score   0.74 (0.62-0.89) 0.001
O score   1.28 (1.10-1.50) 0.002
Amount of oxygen (L/min)   1.04 (1.00-1.09) 0.067
PIRO group >14 (n = 223)
Antibiotics <1 hour (reference category) 1 1 0.978a
Antibiotics 1–3 hours 1.10 (0.62-1.97) 0.99 (0.53-1.87) 0.983
Antibiotics >3 hours 0.93 (0.36-2.43) 1.11 (0.40-3.08) 0.849
Type of hospital (academic versus urban)   1.57 (0.83-3.00) 0.166
O score   1.15 (1.00-1.34) 0.056
β-blocker use   0.96 (0.51-1.79) 0.892
Appropriateness of antibiotics   0.35 (0.19-0.62) <0.001
Amount of oxygen (L/min)   1.01 (0.98-1.04) 0.414
Amount of fluids (L/ED stay)   0.88 (0.65-1.20) 0.425
  1. Cox regression analysis was performed with time to antibiotics divided into three categories. In the corrected model regression coefficients were corrected for possible predefined confounders: PIRO score; β-blocker, statin, and antibiotic use prior to ED presentation; appropriateness of initial antibiotics in the ED; amount of fluids (L); amount of oxygen (L/min) in the ED; and hospital (academic versus urban hospital). aOverall P value for categories of time to antibiotics. The P values were not used to construct the model.
  2. CI, Confidence interval; ED, Emergency department; HR, Hazard ratio; ICU, Intensive care unit; PIRO, Predisposition, Infection, Response, and Organ failure score (as a measure of illness severity).