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Figure 2 | Critical Care

Figure 2

From: Immunomodulation by lipid emulsions in pulmonary inflammation: a randomized controlled trial

Figure 2

Impact of infusions on leukocyte cytokine release. Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) (a, b) or monocytes (c-f) originated from volunteers receiving fish oil-based (FO) or soybean oil-based (SO) lipid emulsions, or normal saline (NaCl). RNA was extracted from PMN (b); quantitative PCR was performed and ΔΔCt values were calculated (see methods). Leukocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokine release was assessed after 24 h. Expression (b) of IL-8 and TNF-α were reduced in the FO group as compared to the SO and NaCl (*P <0.05) and NaCl groups (a P <0.05), respectively). Generation of IL-8 by PMN (a) was increased in the SO group but reduced in the FO group (*P <0.05 versus baseline; a P <0.05 versus SO and NaCl; b P <0.05 versus 8 h; c P <0.05 versus NaCl). TNF-α in monocytes (c) was reduced in the FO group (*P <0.05 versus baseline and 8 h; b P <0.05 versus SO and NaCl). IL-1 (d) also decreased in the FO group (b P <0.05 versus NaCl; a P <0.05 versus NaCl and SO; *P <0.05 versus baseline). In contrast, IL-8 synthesis (e) in the FO group did only differ at 8 h from the NaCl group (*P <0.05). IL-10 (f) was decreased in a similar manner in the FO group (*P <0.05 versus baseline; a P <0.05 versus NaCl and SO). Data are given as mean ± standard error of the mean; n = 12 (baseline) or 5 to 6 (post-inhalation) experiments each. Error bars are not evident when obscured by the symbol.

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