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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participantsa

From: A single preoperative FGF23 measurement is a strong predictor of outcome in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a prospective observational study

Variable FGF23 All, n = 859 P -valueb
  Tertile 1 (≤50.6 RU/ml), n = 287 Tertile 2 (50.7 to 89.9 RU/ml), n = 286 Tertile 3 (≥90.0 RU/ml), n = 286   
Male sex (%) 80.8 69.9 54.9 68.6 <0.001
Age (yr) 59.1 ± 14.9 63.7 ± 14.3 68.3 ± 13.2 63.7 ± 1.46 <0.001
Indication for cardiac surgeryc      
 Valvulopathy (%) 72.5 69.2 68.7 70.1 0.561
 Coronary artery disease (%) 34.5 40.9 37.7 37.7 0.285
 Aortic disease (%) 35.2 28.0 23.2 28.8 0.006
Mean arterial blood pressure (mmHg) 94 ± 30 90 ± 36 82 ± 38 89 ± 35 <0.001
Sinus rhythm (%) 92.3 84.6 76.8 84.6 <0.001
Diabetes mellitus (%) 14.6 26.1 35.4 24.8 <0.001
Coronary artery disease (%) 36.2 45.5 47.2 42.9 0.018
Chronic cardiac failure (%) 90.2 85.7 83.1 86.3 0.042
Ejection fraction (%) 50 ± 27 49 ± 25 48 ± 26 49 ± 26 0.542
EuroSCORE II 2.6 (1.4 to 5.2) 3.7 (2.0 to 6.8) 5.7 (2.7 to 12.4) 3.8 (1.9 to 7.4) <0.001
FGF23 (RU/ml) 39.2 (31.7 to 45.4) 64.5 (56.5 to 75.3) 182.9 (114.5 to 416.5) 64.5 (45.4 to 114.5) <0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.98 ± 0.20 1.06 ± 0.26 1.53 ± 1.35 1.19 ± 0.84 <0.001
Serum NT-proBNP (pg/ml) 212 (90 to 612) 572 (170 to 1,415) 1,276 (443 to 3,575) 525 (156 to 1,507) <0.001
Serum hsCRP (mg/L) 1.6 (0.7 to 4.5) 2.4 (0.9 to 6.1) 5.2 (2.1 to 16.3) 2.6 (1.0 to 8.1) <0.001
Duration of surgery (min) 156 ± 43 171 ± 55 185 ± 67 171 ± 57 <0.001
Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (min) 75 ± 32 80 ± 36 92 ± 48 82 ± 40 <0.001
Time of hypothermic circulatory arrest (min) 51 ± 22 51 ± 24 58 ± 34 53 ± 27 0.001
Ventilation time (hr) 9 (8 to 13) 11 (8 to 16) 14 (10 to 29) 11 (8 to 18) <0.001
Length of ICU stay (days) 1 (1 to 1) 1 (1 to 1) 1 (1 to 3) 1 (1 to 2) <0.001
Total length of stay (days) 9 (8 to 11) 10 (9 to 12) 11 (9 to 16) 10 (8 to 13) <0.001
Acute kidney injury (%) 11.8 23.1 45.8 26.8 <0.001
Non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia (%) 3.8 6.6 16.5 9.0 <0.001
Death during hospitalisation (%) 0.0 2.1 6.7 2.9 <0.001
Death during follow-up (%) 3.1 5.6 12.2 7.0 <0.001
  1. aFGF23, Fibroblast growth factor 23; hsCRP, High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; ICU, Intensive care unit; NT-proBNP, N-terminal fragment of the prohormone B-type brain natriuretic peptide; RU, Relative units. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) or percentage where appropriate. b P-value for the comparison between groups according to tertiles of FGF23. cMultiple indications are possible.