Skip to main content

Table 3 Baseline characteristics of patients who did and did not develop postoperative complications

From: Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference as a prognostic tool in high-risk surgical patients

Variables Patients with postoperative complications Patients without postoperative complications P value
(n = 78) (n = 37)
Severity scores    
ASA class 3.0 (2.0-3.0) 3.0 (2.0-3.0) 0.16
 ASA class ≥3 (%) 51 (65) 19 (51) 0.150
SOFA 7.0 (3.0-12.0) 1.0 (1.0-2.5) <0.001
SAPS II 23.0 (16.5-31.2) 15.5 (12.0-24.2) 0.008
High-risk criteria (%)    
Age, years 64 ± 13 65 ± 10 0.84
Age ≥70 years 30 (38) 12 (32) 0.53
Severe nutritional problems 8 (10) 3 (8) 1.00
Previous respiratory illness 20 (26) 4 (11) 0.07
Chronic renal failure 5 (6) 1 (3) 0.66
Chronic liver failure 6 (8) 1 (3) 0.43
Ischemic heart disease 32 (41) 19 (51) 0.30
Malignant neoplasia 46 (59) 21 (57) 0.82
Major abdominal surgery 52 (67) 30 (81) 0.11
Prolonged surgery ≥8 hours 6 (8) 3 (8) 1.00
Urgent surgery 19 (24) 3 (8) 0.04
Septic surgery 19 (24) 5 (13) 0.18
Vascular clamping ≥1 hour 4 (5) 0 (0) 0.30
Physiological parameters    
Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 82 ± 16 85 ± 14 0.30
Urine output, ml/3 hours 266 ± 228 345 ± 258 0.023
Biologic parameters    
 Serum lactate, mmol/l 1.54(1.1-3.2) 1.06 ± (0.8-1.8) 0.006
 Serum bicarbonate, mmol/l 19.6 ± 4.2 21.4 ± 2.7 0.008
 Hemoglobin, g/dl 10.4 ± 1.8 10.8 ± 1.7 0.39
 Troponin I, ng/ml 0.03 (0.01-0.11) 0.01 (0.00-0.04) 0.025
 Arterial pH 7.33 ± 0.08 7.35 ± 0.07 0.47
 Venous pH 7.28 ± 0.09 7.30 ± 0.06 0.06
 PCO2 gap, mmHg 8.7 ± 2.8 5.1 ± 2.6 <0.001
 PcvCO2, mmHg 46.1 ± 6.7 45.9 ± 6.0 0.92
 PaCO2, mmHg 37.4 ± 6.5 40.7 ± 6.2 0.09
 ScvO2, % 76.3 ± 6.3 78.0 ± 5.2 0.17
 SaO2, % 99.2 (98.4-99.5) 98.8 (98.1-99.2) 0.026
 PaO2, mmHg 145 (116–175) 135 (110–156) 0.05
 PcvO2, mmHg 46.0 (41.7-54.0) 48,0 (40.5-52.0) 0.77
  1. Data are presented as absolute values (%), mean ± standard deviation, or median (interquartile range). Comparison between groups were assessed by Student’s t test or Mann-Whitney U test when necessary. Significant P values are indicated in bold text. ASA, American Society of Anesthesiology physiological status; PaCO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PCO2 gap, central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide gradient; PcvCO2, central venous partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PcvO2, central venous partial pressure of oxygen; SaO2, arterial oxygen saturation; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; ScvO2, central venous oxygen saturation.