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Table 1 Patient characteristics grouped according to occurrence of acute kidney injurya

From: Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin identifies critically ill young children with acute kidney injury following intensive care admission: a prospective cohort study

  All patients (n = 100) Non-AKI (n = 65) AKI (n = 35) P -valueb
Baseline characteristics     
  Male sex 66 (66) 42 (65) 24 (69) 0.690c
  Gestational age, wk 39.0 (37.6 to 40.0) 38.9 (37.8 to 40.0) 39.0 (37.4 to 40.0) 0.861d
  Birth weight, kg 3.1 (2.8 to 3.6) 3.1 (2.8 to 3.5) 3.1 (2.8 to 3.6) 0.989d
Clinical characteristics at intubation     
  Age, days 27.7 (1.5 to 85.5) 27.1 (1.8 to 71.4) 30.3 (1.4 to 115.0) 0.667d
  Weight, kg 3.8 (3.2 to 5.2) 3.7 (3.3 to 5.0) 3.8 (3.1- 6.0) 0.745d
Admission diagnosis     
  Congenital diaphragmatic hernia 23 (23) 16 (25) 7 (20) 0.132c
  Respiratory failure 20 (20) 11 (17) 9 (26)  
  Cardiac failure 18 (18) 8 (12) 10 (28)  
  RSV bronchiolitis 17 (17) 14 (21) 3 (9)  
  Sepsis 14 (14) 9 (14) 5 (14)  
  Other 8 (8) 7 (11) 1 (3)  
Cardiac arrest on ICU admission, yes 10 (10) 5 (8) 5 (14) 0.283c
Severity of illness at ICU admission     
  PIM2, % 9.8 (3.4 to 18.8) 7.0 (1.7 to 12.0) 15.9 (8.4 to 38.1) 0.011d
  PRISM II, % 33.8 (11.0 to 64.5) 25.7 (10.1 to 54.1) 48.9 (25.5 to 77.1) <0.001d
Type of mechanical ventilation     
  Pressure control 68 (68) 45 (69) 23 (66) 0.671c
  Pressure-regulated volume control 19 (19) 11 (17) 8 (23)  
  High-frequency ventilation 11 (11) 7 (11) 4 (11)  
  Pressure support 2 (2) 2 (3)  
Fraction of inspired oxygen at intubation, percentage 59 (40 to 94) 55 (40 to 90) 68 (39 to 100) 0.422d
Need for nitric oxide ventilation at intubation, yes 18 (18) 10 (15) 8 (23) 0.354c
Need for two or more vasopressors at intubation, yes 49 (49) 24 (37) 25 (71) 0.001c
Diuretic drugs, yes 77 (76) 46 (71) 30 (86) 0.095d
Aminoglycosides, yes 37 (37) 24 (36) 13 (37) 0.983d
Outcomes     
  Need for renal replacement therapy, yes 1 (1) 1 (3) N/A
  Duration of mechanical ventilation, days 5.8 (3.1 to 11.4) 4.4 (3.0 to 8.3) 8.3 (5.6 to 19.1) 0.001d
  Length of ICU stay, days 10.0 (6.1 to 27.0) 8.3 (5.8 to 15.9) 19.2 (7.8 to 35.6) 0.002d
  Length of hospital stay, days 15.9 (8.1 to 38.0) 11.6 (6.5 to 27.9) 27.0 (11.1 to 46.9) 0.015d
  Mortality 20 (20) 9 (14) 11 (32) 0.027c
  ICU 17 7 10 N/A
  Time from admission until death, days 11.7 (4.4 to 27.2) 9.9 (3.4 to 17.0) 18.7 (6.7 to 45.0) N/A
  1. aAKI, Acute kidney injury; ICU, Intensive care unit; N/A, Not applicable; PIM2, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2; PRISM II, Pediatric Risk of Mortality II; RSV, Respiratory syncytial virus. Patient demographic data and clinical characteristics of all patients enrolled, grouped according to the development of AKI (yes or no), are shown. AKI was defined according to the highest RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage renal disease) score attained within 48 hours following admission. The RIFLE categories risk, injury and failure were defined as, respectively, serum creatinine (SCr) above 150%, 200% and 300% of the median age-specific SCr reference values. Continuous data are expressed as median (interquartile range), and categorical data are expressed as number (%). b P-values indicate comparison between AKI and non-AKI patients using univariate analyses. cPearson’s χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate, for categorical variables. dMann–Whitney U test for continuous variables.