Clinical course of mean urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 levels from 0 to 72 hours following intubation, stratified by occurrence of acute kidney injury within 48 hours post-admission. Data represent the mean (±1 standard error of the mean). The filled diamonds represent patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), and the open circles represent non-AKI patients. Differences were assessed for each biomarker per time frame using Mann–Whitney U tests. KIM-1, Kidney injury molecule-1; uNGAL, Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.