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Table 2 Comparison of time above and below targeted blood glucose range for patients with or without diabetes, as well as clinical characteristics and glycemic control metricsa

From: Time in blood glucose range 70 to 140 mg/dl >80% is strongly associated with increased survival in non-diabetic critically ill adults

  TIR-hi TIR-lo P -value
NON group    
  Clinical parameters    
   Age (yr) 65 (48 to 80) 70 (56 to 82) <0.0001
   Median ICU LOS (IQR) 2.2 (1.4 to 5.0) 2.4 (1.6 to 5.0) 0.0657
   Mean ICU LOS (SD) 4.4 (5.6) 4.6 (5.9) N/A
   Mechanical ventilation (%) 45.18 51.22 0.0026
   APS 48 (34 to 67) 54 (40 to 74) <0.0001
   APACHE IV PM (%) 16.6 (20.9) 22.9 (25.7) <0.0001
   Mortality (%) 8.47 15.76 <0.0001
  Glucose metrics    
   TIR (%) 94.0 (87.8 to 100.0) 61.4 (46.5 to 71.4) <0.0001
   Median number of BG tests (IQR) 15 (9 to 35) 18 (10 to 39) 0.0001
   Mean number of tests (SD) 30.7 (40.5) 36.6 (50.4) N/A
   BG tests per 24 hr 7.0 8.0  
   Mean BG (SD) 113.4 (105.3 to 119.4) 131.9 (123.7 to 140.7) <0.0001
   CV (%) 15.0 (11.6 to 19.2) 20.8 (16.3 to 25.8) <0.0001
   Hypo <70 (% of patients) 16.63 19.45 0.0718
   Hypo <40 (% of patients) 1.10 1.65 0.3066
DM group    
  Clinical parameters    
   Age (yr) 71 (61 to 80) 69 (59 to 80) 0.2418
   Median ICU LOS (IQR) 2.7 (1.6 to 7.4) 2.1 (1.4 to 3.8) 0.0001
   Mean ICU LOS (SD) 5.6 (6.5) 3.6 (4.4) N/A
   Mechanical ventilation (%) 60.32 43.58 <0.0001
   APS 63 (46 to 83)b 57 (44 to 75)c 0.0175
   APACHE IV PM (%) 27.9 (25.4)d 22.7 (25.4)e 0.0071
   Mortality (%) 16.09 14.44 0.5994
  Glucose metrics    
   TIR (%) 71.1 (63.4 to 82.0) 35.4 (24.1 to 47.3) <0.0001
   Median number of BG tests (IQR) 24 (13 to 62) 20 (12 to 36) 0.0023
   Mean number of tests (SD) 52.0 (68.7) 35.4 (46.3) N/A
   BG tests per 24 hr 9.3 9.8  
   Mean BG (SD) 129.6 (119.9 to 138.8) 151.7 (142.1 to 166.7) <0.0001
   CV (%) 25.2 (19.3 to 33.8) 29.5 (22.2 to 37.7) <0.0001
   Hypo <70 (% of patients) 38.07 24.87 0.0001
   Hypo <40 (% of patients) 2.95 2.67 0.9919
  1. aData are displayed as number, mean (SD), median (IQR) or percentage, as appropriate. Cardiovascular surgery patients did not have APACHE IV predicted mortality calculated. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; APS, Acute Physiology Score component of the APACHE IV predicted mortality severity scoring system; BG, Blood glucose; CV, Coefficient of variation; DM, Diabetes mellitus group; Hypo, Hypoglycemia; ICU, Intensive care unit; IQR, Interquartile range; LOS, Length of stay; N/A, Not appropriate; NON, Non-diabetic group; PM, Predicted mortality; SD, Standard deviation; TIR, Time in targeted blood glucose range; TIR-hi, Time in targeted blood glucose range above median value for non-diabetic and diabetes mellitus groups; TIR-lo, Time in targeted blood glucose range below median value for non-diabetic and diabetes mellitus groups. bn =1,227. cn =343. dn =1,099. en =340.