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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population according to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI)

From: Acute kidney injury after cardiac arrest

  All patients (n = 199) No AKI (n = 114) AKI (n = 85) P - value
Age, years 62 ± 16 60 ± 14 65 ± 10 0.001
Weight, kg 77 ± 22 76 ± 22 78 ± 20 0.45
Male, n (%) 134 (67) 80 (70) 54 (64) 0.29
Total ICU stay, days 4 (3 to 8) 4 (3 to 7) 5 (3 to 9) 0.03
Witnessed CA, n (%) 148 (74) 77 (68) 71 (84) 0.009
Bystander CPR, n (%) 112 (56) 63 (55) 49 (58) 0.67
Time to ROSC, minutes 15 (9 to 26) 15 (9 to 22) 16 (10 to 30) 0.04
Epinephrine, mg 4 (2 to 7) 4 (2 to 6) 4 (3 to 8) 0.03
Out-of-hospital CA 121 (61) 80 (70) 41 (48) 0.002
Non cardiac-origin CA 69 (35) 44 (39) 25 (29) 0.22
VF/VT, n (%) 118 (59) 48 (42) 33 (39) 0.66
Past history     
Chronic heart failure, n (%) 57 (29) 25 (22) 32 (38) 0.02
Hypertension, n (%) 77 (39) 42 (37) 35 (41) 0.56
Coronary artery disease, n (%) 86 (43) 45 (39) 41 (48) 0.25
Diabetes, n (%) 42 (21) 19 (17) 23 (27) 0.08
COPD/asthma, n (%) 37 (19) 24 (21) 13 (15) 0.36
Neurological disease, n (%) 30 (15) 22 (19) 8 (9) 0.07
Chronic renal disease, n (%) 30 (15) 9 (8) 21 (25) 0.001
Liver cirrhosis, n (%) 11 (6) 4 (4) 7 (8) 0.13
HIV, n (%) 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 1.00
Corticosteroid therapy, n (%) 29 (15) 12 (11) 17 (20) 0.07
Immunosuppressive agents, n (%) 2 (1) 0 2 (2.3) 0.09
Therapy before ICU admission     
IECA/ ARBs, n (%) 81 (41) 43 (38) 38 (45) 0.38
Diuretics, n (%) 40 (20) 15 (13) 25 (29) 0.008
Aminoglycosides, n (%) 1 (1) 0 1 (1) 0.21
Amphotericin B, n (%) 0 0 0 -
Cyclosporine/FK506, n (%) 0 0 0 -
NSAIDs, n (%) 68 (34) 37 (32) 31 (36) 0.58
Chemotherapy, n (%) 0 0 0 -
Events and interventions during ICU stay     
Lactate on admission, mEq/L 3.1 (1.9 to 5.1) 3.1 (1.8 to 5.2) 3.3 (2.0 to 6.6) 0.288
Infection, n (%) 123 (62) 66 (58) 57 (67) 0.21
IABP, n (%) 15 (8) 6 (5) 9 (11) 0.12
ECMO, n (%) 22 (11) 9 (8) 13 (16) 0.08
Shock, n (%) 103 (52) 43 (38) 60 (71) 0.002
Therapeutic hypothermia, n (%) 198 (99) 114 (100) 84 (99) 0.96
MV, n (%) 199 (100) 114 (100) 85 (100) -
Duration of MV, days 3 (2 to 5) 3 (2 to 4) 4 (3 to 7) 0.001
Fluid balance on day 1, mL/day 1,924 ± 1348 1,480 ± 1348 2,520 ± 1414 0.001
Fluid balance on day 2, mL/day 2,704 ± 1636 2,282 ± 1639 3,264 ± 2889 0.003
CrCl on day 1, mL/min 40 (13 to 90) 67 (27 to 121) 23 (9 to 44) <0.001
Augmented renal clearance on day 1, n (%) 38 (19) 32 (28) 6 (7) 0.001
CRRT, n (%) 24 (12) 0 24 (29) 0.001
Therapy during ICU stay     
Vasopressor therapy, n (%) 134 (68) 65 (57) 69 (81) 0.001
Duration of vasopressor therapy, days 3 (2 to 5) 3 (2 to 4) 4 (3 to 6) 0.001
Cumulative vasopressor dose, mcg 21.0 (7.7-73.2) 9.9 (4.1-29.9) 39.1 (14.6-109.7) 0.001
Dobutamine therapy, n (%) 112 (56) 40 (35) 72 (85) 0.001
Duration of dobutamine, days 3.5 (3 to 6) 3 (2 to 4) 4 (3 to 6) 0.001
Cumulative dobutamine dose, mcg 1456 (514 to 2733) 982 (445 to 1670) 2084 (575 to 3964) 0.001
ACEIs/ARBs, n (%) 54 (27) 36 (32) 18 (21) 0.11
Diuretics, n (%) 94 (47) 45 (40) 49 (57) 0.01
Aminoglycosides, n (%) 38 (19) 15 (13) 23 (27) 0.01
Amphotericin B, n (%) 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 -
Cyclosporine/FK506, n (%) 2 (1) 0 2 (2) 0.92
NSAIDs, n (%) 90 (45) 49 (43) 41 (48) 0.48
Chemotherapy, n (%) 2 (1) 0 2 (2) 0.86
Contrast medium, n (%) 94 (47) 51 (45) 43 (51) 0.41
Contrast medium injections, n (%) 0 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 1) 1 (0 to 2) 0.19
HES, n (%) 14 (7) 8 (7) 6 (7) 0.99
Number of nephrotoxic agents, n (%) 2 (1 to 3) 1 (0 to 3) 2 (1 to 3) 0.04
At least one nephrotoxic agent, n (%) 158 (79) 83 (72) 75 (88) 0.008
Outcomes     
ICU mortality, n (%) 107 (54) 55 (48) 52 (61) 0.08
Hospital mortality, n (%) 112 (56) 57 (50) 55 (65) 0.04
Favorable neurological outcome at 3 months, n (%) 81 (41) 52 (46) 29 (34) 0.11
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± SD, median (IQR) or number (%). CA, cardiac arrest; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; VF/VT, ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; ACEIs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; HES, hydroxyethyl starch; CrCl, creatinine clearance; MV, mechanical ventilation.