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Table 2 Summary of implementation strategies

From: A systematic review of implementation strategies for assessment, prevention, and management of ICU delirium and their effect on clinical outcomes

Implementation strategy Studies reporting both clinical outcomes and process outcomes before versus after implementation Studies reporting process outcomes, without clinical outcomes, before versus after implementation* Percent using strategy
   Author Mansouri Skrobik Balas Radtke Robinson Kamdar Reade Dale Bryckz. Eastwood Devlin Scott Gesin Riekerk Kastrup Boogaard Pun Hager Soja Page Bowen  
PO 1 Distribution** 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81
2 Educational Meetings 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 100
3 Local consensus 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 62
4 Outreach 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 67
5 Opinion leaders 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 52
6 Patient-mediated 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 86
7 Audit/feedback 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 62
8 Reminders 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 38
9 Tailoring (barriers) 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 33
10 Mass media 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O 11 Provider-oriented 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 43
12 Patient-oriented 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
13 Structural 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 48
F 14 Provider 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10
R 15 Medical liability 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16 Patient complaints 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 peer review/licensure 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
Total number IS used 7 9 12 7 5 6 4 5 3 4 6 4 7 10 7 12 6 10 10 4 8  
Post-implementation***
Mortality = - - - - - - - - - - -  
ICU length of stay = = - - - - - - - - - -  
Screening adherence - - - - - - =  
Incidence - - - - - - - - - - - -  
Antypsychotic drug use - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
Delirium knowledge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
  1. *Study by Eastwood concerns the same study population as the study by Reade and was therefore not used for analysis of clinical outcomes. **For explanation of individual strategies, see Table 1.
  2. ***Only statistically significant changes are in bold text. PO, professional-oriented; O, organizational; F, financial; R, regulatory; IS, implementation strategies.