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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with mortality in 261 injured patients undergoing pre-hospital rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia by a helicopter emergency medicine service

From: Significant modification of traditional rapid sequence induction improves safety and effectiveness of pre-hospital trauma anaesthesia

Factor Survived (n = 193) Died (n = 46) Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis
Crude odds ratio (95% CI) P -value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P -value
Age, years 39 (23 to 55) 51 (40 to 63) 1.029 (1.012, 1.047) 0.001 1.032 (1.006, 1.059) 0.016
Gender       
Male 140 (80.9) 33 (19.1) 1.041 (0.509, 2.128) 0.913   
Female 53 (80.3) 13 (19.7)   
Mechanism of injury       
Blunt 183 (79.9) 46 (20.1) - 0.216   
Penetrating 10 (100.0) 0   
Initial physiology       
Glasgow coma scale 10 (7 to 13) 4 (3 to 10) 0.759 (0.724, 0.874) <0.0001 0.780 (0.680, 0.896) <0.0001
Heart rate 90 (76 to 107) 95 (68 to 125) 1.006 (0.993, 1.018) 0.363   
Systolic blood pressure 127 (112 to 144) 120 (101 to 144) 0.994 (0.981, 1.007) 0.361   
Injury severity score 21 (13 to 34) 34 (27 to 43) 1.077 (1.041, 1.114) <0.0001 1.054 (1.013, 1.098) 0.009
Rapid sequence induction dose      
Full 148 (86.6) 23 (13.4) 3.289 (1.687, 6.410) <0.0001 1.901 (0.685, 5.272) 0.217
Reduced 45 (66.2) 23 (33.8)
Rapid sequence induction protocol     
ES 85 (81.0) 20 (19.0) 1.023 (0.535, 1.869) 1.000   
FKR 108 (80.6) 26 (19.4)   
Haemodynamic response*      
Normal 79 (88.8) 10 (11.2) 1.541 (0.660, 3.601) 0.317   
Abnormal 82 (83.7) 16 (16.3)   
  1. Data are presented as median (range), number (percent), or odds ratio (95%). Categorical variables are presented with each state on a separate row. The odds ratio represents the odds of survival when the first state (first row) is present compared to when the second state (second row) is present. *Calculated for 187 patients with measurable haemodynamic response. Normal (within 20% of baseline blood pressure), Abnormal (not within 20% of baseline blood pressure). Bold values indicate P <0.05. ES, etomidate suxamethonium; FKR, fentanyl ketamine rocuronium.