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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included patients

From: Significant modification of traditional rapid sequence induction improves safety and effectiveness of pre-hospital trauma anaesthesia

Characteristic Group 1 (n = 116) Group 2 (n = 145) P -value
Age, years (range) 39 (2 to 99) 45 (3 to 83) 0.031
Gender, male 86 (74%) 102 (70%) 0.579
Mechanism of injury, blunt 112 (97%) 139 (96%) 1.0
Injury severity:    
  Injury severity score 22 (13 to 34) 26 (20 to 38) 0.019
  Glasgow Coma score 11 (6 to 14) 9 (5 to 13) 0.061
  No head injury 19 (16%) 21 (15%) 0.731
  Mild head injury 35 (30%) 17 (12%) 0.003
  Moderate head injury 16 (14%) 37 (26%) 0.021
  Severe head injury 46 (40%) 70 (48%) 0.171
RSI protocol:    
  Full dose 77 (66%) 111 (77%) 0.069
  Reduced dose 39 (34%) 34 (23%) -
RSI indication:    
  Unconsciousness 61 (53%) 77 (53%) 0.742
  Vent failure 18 (16%) 19 (13%) -
  Anticipated clinical course 16 (14%) 18 (12%) -
  Airway compromise 15 (13%) 20 (14%) -
  Humanitarian 3 (3%) 2 (1%) -
  Facilitate injury management 3 (3%) 9 (6%) -
Bougie used 114 (98%) 143 (99%) 1.0
  1. Data presented as number (%) or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise specified. Group 1 underwent pre-hospital rapid sequence intubation (RSI) using a protocol consisting of etomidate and suxamethonium. Group 2 underwent pre-hospital RSI using a protocol consisting of fentanyl, ketamine and rocuronium.