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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcome of the study patientsa

From: Severe and multiple hypoglycemic episodes are associated with increased risk of death in ICU patients

Variables No hypoglycemia Moderate hypoglycemia Severe hypoglycemia Multiple hypoglycemic events
(n =1,474) (n =874) (n =253) (n =482)
Age, yr 61 (17) 63 (16) 62 (15) 63 (15)
Male sex, n (%) 963/1,474 (65) 553/874 (63) 163/253 (64) 320/482 (65)
Weight, kg 80 (21) 75 (18)b 74 (20)b 74 (18)b
Body mass index, kg/m2 27.5 (6.7) 26.2 (5.9)b 25.6 (6.1)b 25.9 (6.0)
SAPS II score 46 (34 to 61) 52 (40 to 67)b 59 (46 to 74)bc 65 (55 to 75)b
SOFA score 7 (4 to 10) 8 (5 to 11)b 10 (7 to 13)bc 10 (7 to 12)b
McCabe score 1 (1 to 2) 1 (1 to 2) 1 (1 to 2) 1 (1 to 2)
Type of patient     
  Medical 872/1,474 (59) 161/874 (60) 161/253 (64) 281/482 (60)
  Scheduled surgery 457/1,474 (31) 75/874 (29) 75/253 (30) 158/482 (30)
  Emergency surgery 145/1,474 (10) 17/874 (11) 17/253 (7) 53/482 (10)
History of diabetes mellitus, n (%) 266/1,474 (18) 189/874 (22) 70/253 (28)b 131/482 (27)
  Type 1 diabetes, n (%) 38/1,474 (3) 32/874 (4) 14/253 (6) 22/481 (5)
  Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 228/1,474 (15) 157/874 (18) 55/253 (22) 108/481 (22)
  Not determined     
Previous treatment 118/1,474 (5) 21/873 (8) 21/253 (8) 35/482 (7)
  Insulin, n (%) 114/1,474 (5) 18/873 (7) 18/253 (7) 28/482 (6)
  Antidiabetic drugs, n (%)     
Plasma creatinine, μmol/L 133 (140) 150 (133) 166 (158)b 169 (147)b
Initial treatment in the ICU     
  Mechanical ventilation 1,273/1,430 (89) 803/873 (92) 240/253 (95)b 453/482 (94)b
  Catecholamines 708/1,428 (50) 533/253 (61)b 195/253 (77)bc 353/482 (73)
  Renal replacement therapy 119/1,428 (8) 123/253 (14)b 54/253 (21)bc 96/482 (20)b
  Antibiotics 924/1,428 (65) 597/253 (68) 180/253 (71) 351/482 (73)
Blood glucose control     
  Conventional 900/1,474 (61) 305/874 (35)b 79/253 (31)b 126/482 (26)b
  Computerized 574/1,474 (39) 569/874 (65)b 174/253 (69)b 356/482 (74)b
Treatment-free days     
  Mechanical ventilation 21 (0 to 26) 14 (0 to 23)b 0 (0 to 18)bc 1 (0 to 18)b
  Catecholamines 26 (17 to 28) 23 (0 to 27)b 15 (0 to 24)bc 18 (0 to 25)b
  Renal replacement therapy 28 (21 to 28) 28 (0 to 28)b 15 (0 to 28)bc 24 (0 to 28)b
ICU-free days 20 (0 to 25) 12 (0 to 12)b 0 (0 to 17)bc 0 (0 to 117)b
Mortality     
  Day 28 315/1,474 (21) 222/874 (25)b 100/253 (39)bc 162/482 (34)b
  Day 90 407/1,474 (28) 315/874 (36)b 137/253 (54)bc 248/482 (51)b
  1. aData are expressed as mean (SD), median (25th to 75th interquartile range), and number (%). ICU, Intensive care unit; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, on which scores can range from 0 to 156, with higher scores indicating more severe illness; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, on which scores can range from 0 to 24 with higher scores indicating more severe illness. b P <0.05 vs. no hypoglycemia group; c P <0.05 vs. moderate hypoglycemia group (comparison was performed only for severe hypoglycemia group).