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Table 3 Comparison of sleep architecture in simulated ICU noise and light night for different study conditions

From: Effect of oral melatonin and wearing earplugs and eye masks on nocturnal sleep in healthy subjects in a simulated intensive care unit environment: which might be a more promising strategy for ICU sleep deprivation?

Variable NL NLP NLEE NLM ANOVA Contrast 1 Contrast 2 Contrast 3
P P P P
Time in bed (min) 513.8 ± 18.6 507.3 ± 23.0 507.9 ± 29.7 508.8 ± 26.5 0.934 0.598 0.893 0.936
Total sleep time (min) 369.0 ± 35.0 367.6 ± 33.3 385.8 ± 38.9 401.2 ± 35.8 0.137 0.302 0.043 0.342
Sleep efficiency index 0.72 ± 0.08 0.72 ± 0.07 0.76 ± 0.08 0.79 ± 0.11 0.186 0.273 0.077 0.396
REM (%) 16.0 ± 4.2 15.0± 7.6 18.4 ± 3.7 20.9 ± 3.0 0.050 0.285 0.011 0.258
N1 (%) 20.3 ± 8.6 21.1 ± 8.7 20.4 ± 3.2 19.2 ± 4.0 0.928 0.973 0.509 0.681
N2 (%) 46.8 ± 7.3 47.4 ± 7.6 46.3 ± 3.0 42.6 ± 3.5 0.262 0.850 0.073 0.161
N3 (%) 15.0 ± 3.9 16.5 ± 4.5 14.9 ± 3.1 17.3 ± 3.6 0.425 0.991 0.654 0.175
Sleep onset latency (min) 71.4 ± 25.6 61.3 ± 20.6 46.6 ± 21.6 33.7 ± 10.5 0.001 0.010 0.004 0.163
REM latency (min) 154.4 ± 46.9 158.2 ± 39.2 158.0 ± 37.4 149.5 ± 37.8 0.959 0.844 0.634 0.644
No. of awakenings 15.1 ± 3.3 13.0 ± 3.1 10.5 ± 3.2 6.5 ± 1.8 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.004
Sleep arousals index 9.8 ± 3.0 8.2 ± 2.6 5.5 ± 2.1 4.5 ± 1.4 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.392
  1. NL: simulated ICU noise and light; NLP: NL plus placebo; NLM: NL plus melatonin; NLEE: NL plus use of earplugs and eye masks; Contrast 1: NL vs. NLEE; Contrast 2: NLP vs. NLM; Contrast 3: NLEE vs. NLM.