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Table 2 Comparison of sleep architecture between baseline night and simulated ICU noise and light night

From: Effect of oral melatonin and wearing earplugs and eye masks on nocturnal sleep in healthy subjects in a simulated intensive care unit environment: which might be a more promising strategy for ICU sleep deprivation?

Variable Baseline NL P
Time in bed (min) 507.8 ± 21.1 509.6 ± 23.7 0.860
Total sleep time (min) 424.3 ± 25.9 359.2 ± 39.9 0.000
Sleep efficiency index 0.83 ± 0.06 0.71 ± 0.08 0.001
REM (%) 21.9 ± 3.8 15.8 ± 4.8 0.006
N1 (%) 19.6 ± 3.8 19.7 ± 9.8 0.983
N2 (%) 39.8 ± 5.1 47.8 ± 8.3 0.018
N3 (%) 18.7 ± 5.3 14.7 ± 4.2 0.078
Sleep onset latency (min) 23.4 ± 10.1 66.2 ± 20.7 0.000
REM latency (min) 147.8 ± 20.1 163.9 ± 55.2 0.399
No. of awakenings 9.9 ± 3.7 14.4 ± 3.3 0.011
Sleep arousals index 5.0 ± 1.8 8.7 ± 3.3 0.006
  1. Baseline: quiet and dark environment; NL: simulated ICU noise and light.