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Table 1 Large, recent studies of ECMO for acute respiratory failure: Key patient features

From: Extracorporeal gas exchange for acute respiratory failure in adult patients: a systematic review

First author [ref] Design Prospective Setting Quality assessment § Follow up ECMO patients Years Age Pneumonia, % Mobile ECMO team, % SOFA score
Peek, ECMO Arm, CESAR trial [18] RCT Y Multi RCT6 6 months 68 2001–2006 40 ± 13 62 0
Schmidt [50] Case series Y Multi Hospital discharge 2,355 2000–2012 41 (28–54) 34
Brogan [26] Case series N Multi Hospital discharge 1,473 1986–2006 35 (22–53) 26
Enger [51] Case series Y Single Hospital discharge 284 2008–2013 46 (43–48) 49 47 11 (11–12)
Hemmila [27] Case series N Single Hospital discharge 280 1989–2003 38 ± 13 31 37
Schmid [32] Case series N Single ICU discharge 176 2007–2010 48 ± 17 58 34 12 ± 4
Schmidt [33] Case series N Multi 6 months 140 2008–2012 44 (30–56) 71£ 68 12 (10–15)
Lindskov [31] Case series Y Single ICU discharge 124 1977–2011 42 (16–67) 64 85
Roch [49] Case series N Single Hospital discharge 85 2009–2013 47 ± 15 86 100 9 (7–11)
Rega [74] Case series N Single 90 days 70 1997–2005 43 ± 18 41
Mols [28] Case–control Y Single 7 Hospital discharge 62 1991–1999 35 ± 11 58 0 7 (6–9)
Muller [35] Case series Y Single ICU discharge 60 2006–2008 53 (21–78) 42 17 14 (11–16)
Lewandowski [29] Case–control Y Single 9 ICU discharge 49 1989–1995 31 ± 14 37
Forrest [34] Case series N Multi Hospital discharge 38 2007–2010 34 (26–42) 89# 100 8 (5–10)
Frenckner [75] Case series N Single ICU 38 1995–2002 38 (17–61) 60 32  
Michaels [46] Case series N Single ICU discharge 36 2009–2012 40 ± 6 58$ 69
Beiderlinden [30] Case–control Y Single 9 Hospital discharge 32 1998–2003 42 ± 13 53 14 ± 3
  1. ICU, intensive care unit; Multi, multicenter; N, no; RCT, randomized control trial; SOFA; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; Y, yes.
  2. Data are given as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range). £26% were H1N1 pneumonia; #42% were H1N1 pneumonia; $44% were H1N1 pneumonia.
  3. §Randomized controlled trial quality was graded using a nine-point scale combining elements from Jadad’s [21] and Chalmers’ scales [23,24] whereas the validity of case-controlled studies was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale [25]; in the survivors.