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Table 1 Characteristics of 27 included studies in the systematic review

From: Incidence and outcome of inappropriate in-hospital empiric antibiotics for severe infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Study year(s) Location Design Center Number of patients Outcome Main type of infection Severity index scale and significance difference
Number Type
Kim et al. [21]a 1998-2001 Korea R 1 U 127 M MRSA bacteremia McCabe’s classification, Jackson: NS
Kang et al. [12]a 1998-2002 Korea R 2 U, G 286 M Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative Bacilli BSI APACHE II: NS
Micek et al. [33]a 1997-2002 USA R 1 U 305 M Pseudomonas aeruginosa BSI SAPS II: NC
Luna et al. [34] 1999-2003 Argentina P 6 NM 76 M Pneumonia (VAP) APACHE II: NS
Kim et al. [8] 1998-2001 South Korea R 1 U 238 M SAB McCabe’s classification, Jackson: NS
Scarsi et al. [22]a 2001-2003 USA R 1 U 884 M Gram-negative BSI Charlson index: NS
Marschall et al. [36]a 2006-2007 USA P 1 T 250 M LOS Gram-negative bacteremia Charlson index, McCabe’s classification: NS
Shorr et al. [37]a 2002-2004 USA R 1 U 291 M LOS C MRSA infection NM
Rodríguez-Baño et al. [38]a 2003 Spain P 59 U, G 209 M Sepsis Charlson index: NC
Ammerlaan et al. [39]a 2007 West European countries R 60 T, G 334 M SAB Modified Charlson index: NS
Erbay et al. [19]a 2005-2008 Turkey R 1 U 103 M Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia APACHE II: NC
Kumar et al. [40]a 1996-2005 Canada, USA, Saudi Arabia R 22 U 5,715 M Septic shock APACHE II: NC
Tseng et al. [41]a 2005-2007 Taiwan R 1 T 163 M Pneumonia Charlson index: NC
Micek et al. [42]a 2002-2007 USA R 1 U 760 M Gram-negative sepsis APACHE II, Charlson index: NS
Paul et al. [43]a 1999-2007 Israel R 1 NM 510 M MRSA bacteremia NM
Joung et al. [44]a 2000-2006 Korea R 1 U 116 M Pneumonia (HAP) Acinetobacter baumannii APACHE II: NS
Shorr et al. [45] 2002-2007 USA R 1 U 760 LOS Gram-negative sepsis APACHE II, Charlson index: NS
Suppli et al. [46]a 2002-2005 Denmark R 1 T 196 M Enterococcal BSI Charlson index: NS, except score 0 (P = 0.04)
Reisfeld et al. [47]a 2005-2007 Israel R 1 G 378 M Gram-negative bacteremia NM
Wilke et al. [48]a 2007 Germany R 5 T 221 M LOS C Pneumonia (VAP, HAP) NM
Lye et al. [50]a 2007-2009 Singapore R 2 G 675 M Gram-negative bacteremia APACHE II <0.001; Charlson index: NS
Tseng et al. [51] 2007-2008 Taiwan R 1 U 163 M Pneumonia (VAP) APACHE II, Charlson index, SOFA: NC
Chen et al. [52] 2006-2011 China R 1 T 118 M SAB APACHE II: NC
Labelle et al. [54]a 2002-2007 USA R 1 T 436 M Septic shock APACHE II, Charlson index: NC
Chen et al. [55] 2008-2009 Taiwan P 1 U 937 M, LOS BSI MEDS, Charlson index: NC
Frakking et al. [56]a 2008-2010 The Netherlands R 8 U 232 M ESBL bacteremia Pitt bacteremia score: NS
Tumbarello et al. [57]a 2008-2010 Italy R 1 U 110 M Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia SAPS II, SOFA: NS
  1. aTwenty-one included studies in meta-analysis. APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; BSI, bloodstream infection; C, costs; ESBL, extended-spectrum β-lactamase; G, general hospital; HAP, hospital-acquired pneumonia; LOS: Length Of Stay; M, mortality; MEDS, Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis; MRSA, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus; NC, no comparison; NM, not mentioned; NS, not significant; P, prospective; R, retrospective; SAB, Staphylococcus Aureus bacteraemia; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; T, teaching hospital, U, university hospital; USA, United States of America; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.