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Table 1 Patient demographics and outcomes of patients with severe blunt trauma injury and hemorrhagic shock

From: Advanced age is associated with worsened outcomes and a unique genomic response in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock

Patient demographics and outcomes
  Young (age <55 years) (n = 1,395) Aged (age 55 years) (n = 533)  
  Number (%) or median (IQR) P -value
Demographics    
 Age, years 34 (24 to 45) 66 (59 to 75)  
 Gender, male 954 (68%) 331 (62%) 0.010a
 NISS 36 (27 to 48) 34 (27 to 48) 0.10
 Body mass index, kg/m2 27 (24 to 31) 28 (25 to 32) <0.001a
 Max Apache II score 0 to 24 hours 28 (24 to 32) 32 (27 to 37) <0.001a
 Injury to ED arrival, hours 1.3 (0.7 to 2.3) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.9) 0.001a
 Lowest ED SBP, mmHg 84 (72 to 98) 78 (66 to 88) <0.001a
 Max lactate 12 to 24 hours, mmol/L 2.8 (2.0 to 4.3) 3.0 (2.1 to 4.5) 0.035a
 Total blood 0 to 12 hours, U 4.6 (2.1 to 9.1) 5.0 (2.6 to 9.0) 0.83
 Total crystalloid 0 to 12 hours, L 9.9 (7.0 to 14.0) 9.0 (6.1 to 12.7) <0.001a
 Major acute surgical procedures 1,312 (94%) 475 (89%) <0.001a
Pre-existing comorbidities    
 Preexisting medications 563 (40%) 412 (77%) <0.001a
 Major medical comorbidity, ≥1 813 (62.4%) 419 (87.1%) <0.001a
 Hypertension 99 (7%) 214 (40%) <0.001a
 Congestive heart failure 0 (0%) 0 (0%) -
 Atrial arrhythmia 7 (0.5%) 31 (5.6%) <0.001a
 Ventricular arrhythmia 1 (0.1%) 4 (0.8%) 0.009a
 Peripheral vascular disease 7 (0.5%) 16 (3.0%) <0.001a
 Cerebrovascular disease 9 (0.7%) 40 (7.5%) <0.001a
 Dementia 0 (0%) 20 (3.8%) <0.001a
 Obstructive pulmonary disease 64 (4.6%) 30 (5.6%) 0.35
 Malignancy 23 (1.7%) 47 (8.8%) <0.001a
 Smoking 423 (30%) 84 (15.8%) <0.001a
 Alcoholism 187 (13%) 54 (10%) 0.054
 Psychiatric disease 147 (10%) 45 (8%) 0.17
 Solid organ transplant 0 (0%) 6 (1.1%) <0.001a
 HIV 8 (0.6%) 1 (0.2%) 0.46
Outcomes    
 Max Marshall MOF score 4.7 (3.2 to 6.7) 5.3 (3.8 to 7.2) <0.001a
 Max Denver 2 MOF score 2 (0 to 3) 2 (1 to 4) <0.001a
 On ventilator, days 6 (2 to 13) 8 (3 to 16) <0.001a
 Tracheostomy 308 (22%) 145 (27%) 0.019a
 ICU readmission 137 (10%) 51 (10%) 0.93
 Non-infectious complications 592 (42%) 277 (53%) <0.001a
 Surgical site infections 202 (15%) 61 (11%) 0.09
 VAP 363 (26%) 159 (30%) 0.023a
 ICU length of stay, days 9 (4 to 17) 11 (5 to 20) <0.001a
 Hospital length of stay, days 19 (10 to 31) 18 (9 to 30) 0.07
Complicated outcome 391 (30%) 226 (47%) <0.001a
Mortality at 28 days 54 (6.7%) 76 (15.8%) <0.001a
  1. P-value considered significant at <0.05 designated by superscript a. Complicated outcome is defined as >14 days of persistent organ dysfunction or death. NISS, new injury severity scale; ED, emergency department; SBP, systolic blood pressure; MOF, multiple-organ failure; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.