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Table 2 Pulmonary infections per study group

From: Endotracheal tube biofilm translocation in the lateral Trendelenburg position

        Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Gram-negative bacteria
Pig Group Hours of MV Fever* (°C) WBC* (cells/mm3) Purulent secretions* Clinical suspicion of VAP/VAT Microbiologically confirmed VAP Microbiologically confirmed VAT Microbiologically confirmed VAP Species Microbiologically confirmed VAT
17 24 h 24 37.6 21400 No No No No No No
20 24 h 24 40.2 23100 No Yes No No No No
30 24 h 24 38.5 19700 No Yes No No No No
50 24 h 24 37.4 39500 Yes Yes No No No No
18 48 h 48 39.2 20500 No Yes No Yes No No
27 48 h 48 38.3 28000 No No No No No No
44 48 h 48 36.2 21700 Yes Yes No No No Bordetella bronchiseptica Yes
51 48 h 48 37.6 18200 No No No No No No
55 48 h 48 36.1 18300 Yes Yes No No No Bordetella bronchiseptica Yes
34 48-ALI 48 36.0 16400 Yes Yes No Yes No Escherichia coli Yes
37 48-ALI 48 NA 21600 Yes Yes No No No No
40 48-ALI 48 38.9 29000 Yes Yes No Yes No No
52 48-ALI 48 37.6 24900 Yes Yes No Yes No Escherichia coli Yes
54 48-ALI 18 NA 24700 Yes Yes No No No Bordetella bronchiseptica Yes
22 72 h 72 NA 18600 Yes Yes No Yes No Bordetella bronchiseptica Yes
31 72 h 72 36.0 22000 Yes Yes No No No No
48 72 h 72 37.0 22700 No No No No No No
53 72 h 72 36.5 21700 No No No No No No
  1. Pulmonary infections were clinically suspected in the case of at least two of three of the following clinical features: body temperature >38.5°C or <36°C; white blood count >14,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3 and purulent secretions. VAT was microbiologically confirmed when a bronchial mucosa culture was ≥3 log cfu/g. VAP was microbiologically confirmed according to a lung tissue quantitative bacterial culture ≥3 log cfu/g. Of note, only pulmonary lobes with apparent gross findings of pneumonia (edematous tissue; consolidated areas; mucopurulent material in the tracheobronchial tree; abscess) were sampled, whereas in group 48-ALI all lobes were sampled. *Only values upon autopsy are reported in the table, but statistical analysis included all values collected every 12 hours: P-values for differences among groups were 0.212 (Fever), 0.276 (WBC), 0.298 (Purulent secretions), 0.439 (Clinical suspicion of VAP/VAT), not significant (Microbiologically confirmed VAP) and 0.327 (Microbiologically confirmed VAT) for P. Aeruginosa, and not significant (Microbiologically confirmed VAP) and 0.423 (Microbiologically confirmed VAT) for Gram-negative bacteria. ALI, acute lung injury; MV, mechanical ventilation; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia; VAT, ventilator associated tracheobronchitis; WBC, white blood cell; 24 h, 24 hours; 48 h, 48 hours; 48 h-ALI, 48 hours with concomitant acute lung injury; 72 h, 72 hours.