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Table 3 Inter-observer agreement for testing method and scoring system (manual muscle strength testing and handgrip dynamometry (n = 29))

From: A new two-tier strength assessment approach to the diagnosis of weakness in intensive care: an observational study

Testing procedure Inter-rater reliability ICC [95%CI] Kappa agreement for diagnosis of ICU-AW
Six-point isometric 0.88 [0.75-0.94] 0.72a
Six-point through range 0.78 [0.55-0.90] 0.26a
Four-point isometric 0.90 [0.80-0.95] 0.85b
Four-point through range 0.94 [0.87-0.97] 0.63b
Overall cohort Right HGD 0.93 [0.85-0.97]  
Overall cohort Left HGD 0.98 [0.95-0.99]  
Females Right HGD 0.97 [0.90-0.99]  
Females Left HGD 0.94 [0.82-0.98]  
Males Right HGD 0.88 [0.70-0.96]  
Males Left HGD 0.97 [0.91-0.99]  
  1. aKappa statistic using binary outcome of clinical weakness for six-point scale (less than 48 out of 60); bkappa statistic using binary outcome of clinical weakness for four-point scale (less than 24 out of 36). n, number; ICC, interclass correlation coefficient; 95%CI, ninety-five percent confidence interval; ICU-AW, intensive care unit-acquired weakness; HGD, handgrip dynamometry.