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Table 1 Demographic and clinical features

From: Prospective validation of pediatric disease severity scores to predict mortality in Ugandan children presenting with malaria and non-malaria febrile illness

Variable Survivors (number = 1990) Non-survivors (number = 99) P -value
Demographic and anthropometric characteristics    
Age — months 17.0 (9.0-26.5) 15.0 (9.0-25.0) 0.296
Age <12 months— number (%) 609 (30.7) 35 (35.4) 0.326
Male — number (%) 1079 (54.8) 55 (56.1) 0.797
Mid-upper-arm circumference — mm 140 (130–150) 130 (120–141) <0.0001
Weight-for-age z < −3SD — number (%) 180 (9.3) 14 (14.7) 0.076
Quality of care measures    
Time to see medical doctor— hours 2.7 (1.0-4.3) 1.0 (0.2-2.8) <0.0001
Examination findings at admission    
Axillary temperature—°C 38.0 (37.0-38.8) 37.4 (36.6-38.1) <0.0001
Temperature >38°C— number (%) 891 (45.4) 26 (27.4) 0.001
Temperature <36°C — number (%) 70 (3.6) 11 (11.6) <0.0001
Heart rate— beats/minute 162 (146–176) 163 (145–182) 0.839
Tachycardia— number (%) 1271 (64.4) 58 (63.0) 0.788
Respiratory rate— breaths/minute 42 (36–56) 60 (44–68) <0.0001
Tachypnea— number (%) 490 (25.5) 50 (54.3) <0.0001
Deep breathing— number (%) 434 (21.8) 77 (77.8) <0.0001
Subcostal retractions— number (%) 353 (17.8) 66 (66.7) <0.0001
Prostration— number (%) 440 (22.2) 85 (85.9) <0.0001
Systolic blood pressure— mmHg 100 (100–110) 95 (90–103) <0.0001
Hypotensive— number (%) 21 (1.1) 10 (12.3) <0.0001
Capillary refill time ≥3 seconds — number (%) 86 (4.5) 20 (20.4) <0.0001
Convulsions— number (%) 350 (17.6) 33 (33.3) <0.0001
Altered consciousness— number (%) 282 (14.2) 76 (76.8) <0.0001
Coma (BCS < 3) — number (%) 76 (3.9) 53 (53.5) <0.0001
Jaundice— number (%) 188 (9.5) 25 (25.3) <0.0001
Laboratory test results at admission    
Oxygen saturation 98.0 (96.0-99.0) 95.0 (88.0-99.0) <0.0001
Oxygen saturation <90% — number (%) 62 (3.1) 25 (27.5) <0.0001
Positive for malaria parasitemia — number (%) 1125 (63.0) 27 (40.3) <0.0001
RDT Results — number (%)    
RDT negative 494 (25.6) 34 (35.8) 0.027
RDT pLDH positive 22 (1.1) 0 (0) 0.622
RDT HRP2 positive 237 (12.3) 19 (20.0) 0.037
RDT pLDH/HRP2 positive 1176 (61.0) 42 (44.2) 0.001
Glucose 6.9 (5.9-8.3) 5.4 (2.9-9.0) <0.0001
Lactate 2.6 (1.9-4.6) 8.2 (2.9-16.9) <0.0001
Hemoglobin 4.8 (3.4-7.0) 4.0 (2.4-6.7) 0.012
Positive for HIV antibody— number /total number (%) 39/931 (4.2) 6/37 (14.0) 0.003
Duration of follow up — days 3 (2–4) 1 (0–1) <0.0001
  1. Data presented as median (IQR). Tachycardia (heart rate >160/minute (infant, <12 months of age) or >150/minute (child, ≥12 months of age)); tachypnea (respiratory rate >60 (infant) or >50/minute (child)); hypotension (systolic blood pressure <65 mm Hg (infant) or <75 (child)). Prostration was defined as the inability to breastfeed or sit unsupported according to age. Altered Consciousness was defined using AVPU where anything except ‘alert’ constituted altered consciousness. BCS, Blantyre Coma Score; HRP2, P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2; pLDH, pan-malaria lactate dehydrogenase; RDT, rapid diagnostic test; SD, standard deviation.