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Table 1 Study settings, size, population and aims

From: Physiological changes after fluid bolus therapy in sepsis: a systematic review of contemporary data

First author Journal Year Aims of study Location Institution(s) Study type Population size
Bihari [36] Shock 2013 Investigation of the use and effects of fluid boluses in septic patients following primary resuscitation Australia Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 50 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock
Castellanos-Ortega [37] Critical Care Medicine 2010 Evaluation of the impact of a standardised EGDT response to sepsis Spain Single centre, academic ICU Quasi-experimental study 480 patients with septic shock
De Backer [38] New England Journal of Medicine 2010 Assessing the effect of noradrenaline as first-line vasopressor on mortality Europe 8 centres, mixed ICUs Randomised clinical trial 1,679 patients with shock requiring vaspressor therapy. 1,044 patients with sepsis
Dong [39] World Journal of Emergency Medicine 2012 Investigating the relationship between stroke volume index and passive leg raising and fluid responsiveness China 2 centres, general ICUs Prospective observational study 32 mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock
Freitas [40] British Journal of Anaesthesia 2013 Evaluation of the predictive value of automated PPV for fluid responsiveness in patients with sepsis and low tidal volumes Brazil Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 40 patients with low tidal volume ventilation and severe sepsis or septic shock requiring a fluid challenge
Gaieski [41] Critical Care Medicine 2010 Evaluation of the impact of a standardised EGDT response to sepsis on time to antibiotic administration and survival USA Single centre, academic ICU Retrospective observational study 261 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock undergoing EGDT
Hamzaoui [42] Critical Care 2010 Evaluation of the cardiac consequences of early administration of noradrenaline France Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 105 patients with septic shock requiring vasopressor commencement following initial fluid resuscitation
Hanzelka [43] Supportive Care in Cancer 2013 Evaluation of the impact of a standardised EGDT response to sepsis USA Single centre, academic ED Retrospective observational study 200 patients with cancer and severe sepsis or septic shock presenting to ED
Jacob [44] Critical Care Medicine 2012 Evaluation of the impact of early monitored sepsis management Uganda 2 centres, medical/treatment centres Prospective observational study 671 patients with severe sepsis presenting within office hours
Khwannimit [45] European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2012 Comparing SVV by Vigileo with PPV by monitor to predict fluid responsiveness Thailand Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 42 patients with septic shock who were mechanically ventilated with tidal volumes >8 ml/kg requiring fluid resuscitation
Lakhal [46] Intensive Care Medicine 2013 Identification of fluid responsiveness from IABP and NIBP France 3 centres, academic ICU Prospective observational study 130 patients with circulatory failure requiring a fluid challenge. 58 patients with septic shock
Lanspa [47] Journal of Critical Care 2012 Assessment of CVP and shock index to predict haemodynamic response to volume expansion when compared with CVP alone USA Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 25 patients with septic shock over 14 years of age
Machare-Delgado [48] Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 2011 Predicting fluid responsiveness by comparing SVV and inferior vena caval respiratory variation by ECHO during mechanical ventilation USA Single centre, medical academic ICU Prospective observational study 25 mechanically ventilated vasopressor-dependent patients who required a fluid challenge. 22 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock
MacRedmond [49] Quality and Safety in Health Care 2010 Evaluation of the impact of implementing a quality initiative on the management of severe sepsis and septic shock Canada Single centre, ICU Quasi-experimental study 74 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted via ED
Mahjoub [50] Intensive Care Medicine 2012 Assessment of the impact of volume expansion on patients with left ventricular dysfunction France Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 83 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis-induced circulatory failure
McIntyre [51] Journal of Critical Care 2012 Feasibility study comparing the effects of 5% albumin versus 0.9% saline for resuscitation in septic shock Canada 6 centres, academic ED and ICU Randomised clinical trial 50 patients with refractory hypotension and sepsis
Monnet [52] Critical Care 2010 Comparing haemodynamic changes induced by noradrenaline and volume expansion using Vigileo and PiCCO France Single centre, academic medical ICU Prospective observational study 80 patients with sepsis-induced circulatory failure
Monnet [53] Critical Care Medicine 2011 Assessing the effects of noradrenaline on haemodynamics in sepsis France Single centre, academic medical ICU Prospective observational study 25 patients with sepsis-induced fluid-responsive acute circulatory failure with DBP <40 mmHg, or requiring noradrenaline
Monnet [54] Critical Care Medicine 2013 Comparing ScvO2 and markers of anaerobic metabolism as predictors of unfavourable changes in oxygen extraction France Single centre, academic medical ICU Prospective observational study 51 patients with acute circulatory failure undergoing transpulmonary thermodilution monitoring, 40 patients with septic shock
Monnet [55] Critical Care Medicine 2011 Investigation of the utility of pulse pressure as a surrogate for changes in cardiac output France Single centre, academic medical ICU Prospective observational study 373 patients with acute circulatory failure requiring a fluid challenge or the introduction or dose increase of noradrenaline. 338 patients with septic shock
O’Neill [56] Journal of Emergency Medicine 2012 Evaluation of the most difficult elements of a SSC protocol to implement in a community-based ED USA Single centre, community ED Retrospective observational study 79 with severe sepsis or septic shock remaining hypotensive following 2,000 ml of fluid resuscitation
Ospina-Tascon [57] Intensive Care Medicine 2010 Evaluation of the effects of fluid administration on microcirculatory alterations in sepsis Belgium Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 60 patients with severe sepsis requiring fluid challenge. 37 within 24 hours of diagnosis, 23 after 48 hours
Patel [58] Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2010 Investigation of the implementation and effects of introducing the SSC guidelines USA Single centre, community ICU Prospective observational study 112 patients with sepsis or septic shock
Pierrakos [59] Intensive Care Medicine 2012 Evaluation of the correlation between changes in MAP and CI following fluid challenge Belgium Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 51 patients with septic shock undergoing invasive haemodynamic monitoring and requiring a fluid challenge
Pottecher [60] Intensive Care Medicine 2010 Assessment of sublingual microcirculatory changes in response to fluid challenge France 2 centres, academic ED Prospective observational study 25 mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis or septic shock within 24 hours of ICU admission demonstrating pre-load dependency
Sanchez [61] Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 2011 Measuring the response to a fluid load in patients with and without septic shock Spain Single centre, academic ICU Prospective observational study 32 patients requiring invasive monitoring. 18 patients with septic shock
Schnell [62] Critical Care Medicine 2013 Assessment of the effects of a fluid challenge on Doppler-based renal resistive index in critically ill patients France 3 centres, academic ICUs Prospective observational study 35 mechanically ventilated patients with real-time cardiac monitoring requiring a fluid challenge. 30 patients with sepsis
Sturgess [63] Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 2010 Comparison of aortic corrected flow time, BNP and CVP as predictors of fluid responsiveness Australia Single centre, private ICU Prospective observational study 10 patients with septic shock requiring a fluid challenge
Trof [64] Critical Care Medicine 2012 Comparison of volume-guided and pressure-guided hemodynamic management in shocked patients Netherlands 2 centres, academic, ICU Randomised clinical trial 120 patients with shock requiring invasive haemodynamic monitoring and >48 hours of ICU admission. 72 patients with sepsis
van Haren [65] Shock 2012 Evaluation of the effects of hypertonic versus isotonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock Netherlands Single centre, academic ICU Randomised clinical trial 24 patients with septic shock enrolled within 24 hours of admission
Wacharasint [66] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2012 Evaluation of the effectiveness of three dynamic measures of fluid responsiveness in septic shock patients Thailand Single centre, medical ICU Prospective observational study 20 patients with sepsis and acute circulatory failure with invasive haemodynamic monitoring stable for 15 minutes prior to inclusion
Yu [67] Shock 2011 Evaluation of the effects of blood volume analysis compared with pulmonary artery catheter monitoring North America Single centre, academic ICU Randomised clinical trial 100 patients requiring resuscitation for shock. 69 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock
Zhang [68] Journal of Critical Care 2012 Investigation of the association between plasma protein levels and subsequent pulmonary oedema China Single centre, academic ICU Retrospective observational study 62 patients with sepsis undergoing transpulmonary thermodilution assessment requiring fluid
  1. BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; CI, cardiac index; CVP, central venous pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ECHO, echocardiogram; ED, Emergency Department; EGDT, early goal directed therapy; IABP, intra-arterial blood pressure; MAP, mean arterial blood pressure; NIBP, non-invasive blood pressure; PiCCO, pulse contour cardiac output monitoring; PPV, pulse pressure variation; ScvO2, central venous oxygen saturation; SSC, Surviving Sepsis Campaign; SVV, stroke volume variation.