Physiological effects of fluid bolus therapy over time. Multi-panel figure of the haemodynamic effects of fluid bolus therapy (FBT) as reported in studies with observation periods of 60 minutes or more. (A) Changes in heart rate over time. (B) Changes in cardiac index over time. (C) Changes in mean arterial pressure over time. (D) Changes in central venous pressure (CVP) over time. Each solid black line represents a patient group and the average physiological response to FBT over the observation period. Lines terminate when measurements were discontinued in the study from which the group was taken.