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Table 3 Level of evidence and strength of association of selected risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with sepsis

From: Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with sepsis: a systematic review

Risk factor category Variables Level of evidence a Strength of association b
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
Strength References d Strength References d
Demographics Increased age, per 10 years n/a [17],[20],[21],[24],[26] M + W + [24],[25]
Male gender M + M + M + W + [20],[21],[24],[26] W + No [24],[25]
White race S + M + M +   [21],[24],[26] M + M + [24],[25]
Comorbidities COPD S + M + W + W + [20],[21],[24],[26] W -   [25]
Diabetes mellitus M - W - W +   [21],[24],[26] W - W - [24],[25]
Obesity W -   [24] W +   [24]
Heart failure M + M +   [20],[24] M + No [24],[25]
Hypertension S + W + W -   [20],[21],[24] W - No [24],[25]
Coronary artery disease S + M + M +   [20],[21],[26]   
Myocardial infarction W +   [24]   
Stroke M + M +   [21],[24] M +   [24]
Renal disease    W -   [25]
Malignancy W +   [24] W +   [25]
Source of infection Primary blood stream W -   [24] W +   [24]
Respiratory tract M +   [24] W + W + [24],[25]
Abdominal M +   [24] M +   [24]
Urinary tract W -   [24] W - W - [24],[25]
Skin or soft tissue No   [24] W + W - [24],[25]
Pathogen Fungal M +   [24] M +   [24]
Gram-positive bacteria W +   [24] W +   [24]
Severity of disease Organ failurec S + M + n/a n/a [17],[24],[20],[21] M + M + [24],[25]
Electrolyte abnormality W +   [24]   
Critical care interventions Pulmonary artery catheter use S + S +   [17],[24] M + W + [24],[25]
Mechanical ventilation S +   [17] W +   [24]
  1. aLevel of evidence: high (): risk factor reported in ≥2 references using multivariable analyses at a P value <0.05; Moderate (): risk factor reported in 1 reference using multivariable analysis at a P value <0.05 or ≥2 references using univariable analyses at a P value <0.05; low (): risk factor reported in 1 reference using univariable analysis at a P value <0.05; bstrength of association: Strong positive association (S+): OR >3; Moderate positive association (M+): OR = 1.5 to 3.0; Weak positive association (W+): OR <1.5; Strong negative association (S-): OR <0.4; Moderate negative association (M-): OR = 0.4 to 0.7; Weak negative association (W-): OR >0.7; No association (No): OR = 0.9-1.1 (based on [15]); cthis includes high APACHE II, APS or SOFA scores, or the presence of shock upon ICU admission; dthe references refer to the columns showing the strength of association. APACHE II: Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II; APS: Acute Physiology Score; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU: intensive care unit; n/a: not available; OR: odds ratio; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.