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Table 3 Complications in patients discharged alive from hospital and causes of death in hospital after lung transplant

From: Extracorporeal life support as bridge to lung transplantation: a systematic review

Complications in patients discharged alive from hospital
Respiratory complications:
  • PGD requiring Post-Ltx ECMO 47%[34]; 21%[41]a; 20%[20]a; 54%[33]a
  • PGD 72 hours 3rd grade 36%[37]; 15%[39]a; 35%[35]a
  • Tracheostomy 41%[34]; 77%[38]a; 64%[41]a; 27%[26]
  • Bronchopleura fistula 8%[38]a; 14%[36]a
  • Open chest management 50%[41]a; 8%[39]a
  • Acute rejection 15%[38]a; 28%[36]a
Acute kidney injury 35%[34]; 12%[35]a
Renal replacement therapy 23%[34]; 38%[38]a; 43%[41]a; 4%[26]; 14%[36]a; 54%[37]; 12%[35]
Infective complications:
  • Pneumonia 52%[34]
  • Sepsis 23%[34]; 19%[26]; 14%[36]a
Hemorrhagic complications:
  • GI bleeding 5%[34]
  • Bleeding from femoral artery 5%[34]
  • Re-op. for bleeding 15%[38]a; 29%[41]a; 36%[37]; 28%[36]a; 15%[39]a
  • Hemorrhage 31%[26]; 35%[35]a
  • Massive hemoptysis 15%[26]
Neurological complications:
  • Cerebral hemorrhage 5%[34]
  • Stroke 8%[38]a
  • Ischemia thoracic spinal cord 3%[32]
  • CIP/CIM 31%[38]a; 64%[37]; 70%[35]a
Digital ischemia 17%[34]; 14%[36]a
Causes of death in hospital after LTx
MOF 6%[34]; 15%[26]; 7%[40]a
Sepsis 18%[34]; 14%[41]a; 10%[40]a
Acute colonic rupture 8%[38]a
Cardiogenic shock 6%[34]
Cardiac arrest 10%[40]a
Bleeding 9%[37]; 31%[39]a; 3%[40]a
Neurological event 3%[32]
Lung cancer 5%[26]
Bronchopleural fistula 3%[40]a
PGD 31%[39]a
Open chest treatment 23%[39]a
Other 18%[35]a
  1. a percentages of transplanted patients: Shafii et al., Hammainen et al., Javidfar et al., Toyoda et al., Crotti et al., Anile et al., Lafarge et al., Weig et al.. When the percentages of complications were not available, complications referring to the overall enrolled population are reported.
  2. ECMO, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Post-LTx, Post-lung transplantation; PGD, Primary graft dysfunction; GI, Gastrointestinal; MOF, Multi-organ failure; Re-op., Re-operation; CIP/CIM, Critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy.