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Table 3 SHOCK: a practical mnemonic for the differential diagnosis of the spectrum of hemodynamic instability, shock, and pulseless electrical activity arrest

From: A practical approach to goal-directed echocardiography in the critical care setting

Type of shock Goal-directed echocardiographic features
Septic/distributive Less severe shock - hyperdynamic. Severe shock - can be hypodynamic
Hypovolemic Collapsing IVC, small ventricles, may be hyperdynamic
Obstructive Tamponade: pericardial effusion, tamponade physiology
  Pulmonary embolism: large RV, septal shift/diastolic flattening
Cardiogenic Decreased LV (±RV) function, dilated ventricles
K Combinations (for example, septic plus hypovolemic, septic plus cardiogenic, and so on)
  Other kinds (adrenal insufficiency, neurogenic, and so on). This broader category is raised by the question ‘What does not fit?’
  1. IVC, inferior vena cava; LV, left ventricle; RV, right ventricle.