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Table 1 Epidemiologic characteristics, endozepine, biomarkers of inflammation and cytokine levels of healthy volunteers and patients with inflammation a

From: Increased plasma levels of endozepines, endogenous ligands of benzodiazepine receptors, during systemic inflammation: a prospective observational study

  Healthy volunteers ( n  = 16) Patients with inflammation ( n  = 44)
Age (yr) 37.0 [29 to 45] 44 [28 to 60]b
Sex, n (M/F) 8/8b 23/21
Weight (kg) 61 [59.5 to 71] 71 [62 to 80]b
APACHE II score NA 3 [2–6]
Length of stay (days) NA 5 [4–8]
Creatinine (μ mol/L) UM 72 [61 to 79]
DBI-LI (pg/ml) 11.1 [5.9 to 35.3] 48.6 [32.7 to 77.7]c
PMN (×10 3 /ml) UM 9.2 [6.7 to 13]
CRP (mg/L) UM 189 [132 to 279]
PCT (μ g/L) UM 0.25 [0.16 to 1.4]
TNF-α (pg/ml) 6.1 [3.1 to 13.7] 4.2 [2.9 to 5.7]b
IL-1β (pg/ml) UD 0.37 [0.12 to 0.69]
IL-6 (pg/ml) UD 48.7 [17.6 to 79.7]
  1. aThe results are expressed as median and 25th to 75th interquartile range. bNot statistically different from healthy volunteers; cP < 0.001 vs healthy volunteers. APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; CRP, C-reactive protein, DBI-LI, Diazepam-binding inhibitor–like immunoreactivity; IL, Interleukin; NA, Not applicable, PCT, Procalcitonin; PMN, Polymorphonuclear neutrophils; TNF-α, Tumor necrosis factor α; UM, Unmeasured; UD, Undetectable.