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Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized controlled trials a

From: The effect of goal-directed therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis - earlier is better: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Year No. of patients with sepsis (GDT/control) Study population Clinical setting Goals in GDT group Goals in control group Timing of GDT Mortality endpoint
Tuchschmidt et al. [16] 1992 51 (26/25) Adult patients with septic shock ICU CI 6≥L/min/m2 CI 3≥L/min/m2 Within the first 6 hr 14 days
SBP ≥90 mmHg SBP ≥90 mmHg
Yu et al. [17] 1993 52 (30/22) Adult patients with sepsis or septic shock ICU DO2I >600 ml/min/m2 DO2I 450 to 550 ml/min/m2 Unclear 30 days
(septic subpopulation)   SBP >100 mmHg SBP >100 mmHg
Hayes et al. [18] 1994 47 (24/23) Adult patients with septic shock ICU CI ≥4.5 L/min/m2 Usual care Unclear Hospital
(septic subpopulation)   DO2 600 ml/min/m2
VO2 > 170 ml/min/m2
Gattinoni et al. [19] 1995 181 (124/57) Adult patients with septic shock or septic syndrome ICU CI ≥4.5 L/min/m2 or SvO2 ≥ 70% CI 2.5 to 3.5 L/min/m2 Unclear ICU
MAP ≥65 mmHg
(septic subpopulation)   MAP ≥65 mmHg CVP 8 to 12 mmHg
CVP 8 to 12 mmHg UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/h
Yu et al. [20] 1998 87 (58/29) Adult patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock ICU DO2I >600 ml/min/m2 DO2I 450 to 550 ml/min/m2 Unclear ICU
SBP ≥100 mmHg SBP ≥100 mmHg
(septic subpopulation)   SvO2 > 65% SvO2 > 65%
UO >50 ml/hr UO >50 ml/hr
Alía et al. [21] 1999 63 (31/32) Adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock ICU DO2I >600 ml/min/m2 DO2I >330 ml/min/m2 Unclear ICU
MAP >60 mmHg MAP >60 mmHg
Rivers et al. [6] 2001 263 (130/133) Adult patients with severe sepsis, septic shock or sepsis syndrome ED SvO2 ≥ 70% CVP 8 to 12 mmHg Within the first 6 hr Hospital
CVP 8 to 12 mmHg MAP 65 to 90 mmHg
MAP 65 to 90 mmHg UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
Lin et al. [22] 2006 224 (108/116) Adult patients with septic shock ICU CVP 8 to 12 mmHg Usual care Within the first 6 hr Hospital
MAP ≥65 mmHg
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
Wang et al. [23] 2006 34 (16/17) Adult patients with septic shock ICU SvO2 ≥ 70% MAP ≥65 mmHg Within the first 6 to 10 hr 14 days
CVP 8 to 12 mmHg UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
MAP ≥65 mmHg  
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr  
Chen et al. [24] 2007 123 (58/65) Adult patients with severe sepsis ICU ScvO2 ≥ 70% CVP 8 to 12 mmHg Within the first 6 hr ICU
(septic subpopulation) CVP 8 to 12 mmHg MAP ≥65 mmHg
MAP ≥65 mmHg UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr  
He et al. [25] 2007 203 (98/105) Adult patients with septic shock ICU ScvO2 or SvO2 ≥ 70% Usual care Within the first 6 hr Hospital
CVP 8 to 12 mmHg  
MAP ≥65 mmHg  
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr  
Yan et al. [26] 2010 303 (157/146) Adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock ICU ScvO2 ≥ 70% CVP 8 to 12 mmHg Within the first 6 hr ICU
CVP 8 to 12 mmHg SBP >90 mmHg
SBP >90 mmHg MAP ≥65 mmHg
MAP ≥65 mmHg UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr  
ProCESS [7] 2014 895 (439/456) Adult patients with septic shock ED ScvO2 ≥ 70% Usual care Within the first 6 hr Hospital
CVP 8 to 12 mmHg
MAP 65 to 90 mmHg
UO ≥0.5 ml/kg/hr
  1. aCI, Cardiac index; CVP, Central venous pressure; DO2, Oxygen delivery; DO2I, Oxygen delivery index; ED, Emergency department; GDT, Goal-directed therapy; ICU, Intensive care unit; MAP, Mean arterial pressure; ProCESS, Protocolized Care for Early Septic Shock; SIRS, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome; SBP, Systolic blood pressure; ScvO2, Central venous oxygen saturation; SvO2, Mixed venous oxygen saturation; UO, Urine output; VO2, Oxygen consumption.