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Table 1 Main characteristics at the time of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma sampling in the study cohort a

From: Alveolar pentraxin 3 as an early marker of microbiologically confirmed pneumonia: a threshold-finding prospective observational study

Characteristics All BAL(N= 82) Pneumonia(n= 24, 29%) No pneumonia(n= 58, 71%)
Days since hospital admission 8 (4 to 16) 5.5 (2.5 to 10.5) 9 (6 to 17)
Comorbidities, n (%)    
Hypertension 21 (26) 6 (25) 15 (26)
Ischemic vascular disease 14 (17) 5 (21) 9 (16)
Diabetes 9 (11) 2 (8) 7 (12)
COPD 12 (15) 4 (17) 8 (14)
Malignancy 16 (20) 6 (25) 10 (17)
Chronic kidney disease 6 (7) 2 (8) 4 (7)
Other 10 (12) 3 (12) 7 (12)
Days since intubation 2 (1 to 7) 2 (0.5 to 6.5) 2.5 (1 to 7)
FiO2, % 50 (40 to 70) 57.5 (40 to 62.5) 50 (40 to 70)
PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mmHg 188.6 (138.0 to 232.0) 198.4 (144.3 to 249.9) 178.2 (136.7 to 220)
PEEP, cmH2O 10 (8 to 12) 10 (8 to 12) 10 (8 to 12)
Vt, ml/kg 6.6 ± 2.2 7.4 ± 1.9 6.3 ± 2.2
Body temperature, °C 37.9 (36.9 to 38.5) 37.6 (36.7 to 38.4) 38.0 (37.0 to 38.50)
White blood cells, 103/mm3 11.5 (8.7 to 15.9) 13.4 (7.7 to 17.3) 11.3 (8.9 to 14.9)
Heart rate, beats/min 90.6 ± 18.2 96.6 ± 15.6 88.1 ± 18.8
SOFA score 6 (4 to 8) 7 (4.5 to 10) 6 (4 to 8)
Organ failures, n 2 (1 to 2) 2 (1 to 3) 2 (1 to 2)
Septic shock, n (%) 28 (34) 9 (38) 19 (33)
Immunosuppression, n (%) 20 (24) 8 (33) 12 (21)
Receiving antibiotics, n (%) 73 (89) 21 (88) 52 (90)
CPIS 3 (2 to 5) 4 (2.5 to 5) 3 (2 to 5)
Plasma PCT, ng/ml 1.0 (0.3 to 6.1) 2.1 (0.4 to 8.2) 0.9 (0.3 to 4.0)
Plasma CRP, mg/dl 13.9 (7.5 to 22.7) 9.5 (6.0 to 21.7) 14.4 (7.7 to 23.6)
Plasma sTREM-1, pg/ml 346.0 (216.0 to 685.0) 345.0 (230.5 to 779.5) 352.0 (216.0 to 620.0)
Plasma PTX3, ng/ml 56.2 (31.4 to 127.4) 62.7 (31.0 to 174.1) 54.3 (31.4 to 110.5)
BAL fluid sTREM-1, pg/ml 0 (0 to 281) 42.5 (0 to 316) 0 (0 to 247)
BAL fluid PTX3, ng/ml 1.2 (0.3 to 7.4) 8.3 (1.6 to 29.5)b 0.6 (0.0 to 3.4)
Semiquantitative BAL fluid leukocyte count, n (%)    
± 10 (12) 1 (4) 9 (15)
+ 25 (30) 4 (17) 21 (36)
++ 24 (30) 11 (46) 13 (22)
+++ 23 (28) 8 (33) 15 (26)
  1. a−, No leukocytes; +, Few leukocytes; ++ and +++, Many leukocytes; BAL, Bronchoalveolar lavage; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPIS, Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score; CRP, C-reactive protein; FiO2, Fraction of inspired oxygen; PaO2, Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood; PCT, Procalcitonin; PEEP, Positive end-expiratory pressure; PTX3, Pentraxin 3; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; sTREM-1, Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1; Vt, Tidal volume. Mean ± standard deviation values are indicated for normally distributed variables, and median (interquartile range) values are given for non-normal variables. bP < 0.0001 vs. no pneumonia.